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The George Engelmann Papers
1831-1914 (39 linear feet)
George Engelmann (1809-1884) was a German doctor who immigrated with his family to Belleville, Illinois in the early 1830s. From there he moved to St. Louis and established a medical practice with his fellow expatriate Friedrich Adolph Wislizenus and lead the creation of the Western Academy of Natural Sciences and later the Academy of Science of St. Louis. In the 1840s, Engelmann began a life-long correspondence with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray, and the two together arranged for the collection of plants in the Southwest before, during, and following the Mexican-American War through their respective networks of correspondents. Engelmann was also a scientific advisor to Henry Shaw on the development of the Missouri Botanical Garden. He purchased the Bernhardi herbarium on Shaw’s behalf and the first books for the garden library on a trip to Europe in 1857-1858. In addition to his medical practice, Engelmann was an active botanical researcher with a special focus on Cactaceae, Vitaceae, Juncaceae, and Isoetaceae. Engelmann’s herbarium and papers were given to the Missouri Botanical Garden by his son after his death.
The papers are chiefly letters and botanical notebooks. Lecture notes and Engelmann's doctoral thesis are among the earliest. A series on herbaria and collectors includes plant exchange lists and other records concerning the Bernhardi and Engelmann herbaria and early plant collections coordinated by Engelmann in the western United States.
The botanical notebooks are primarily notes on species from the botanical literature, herbarium specimens, and live plants in field and garden. Drawings and manuscripts by Engelmann, Arthur Schott, Paulus Roetter and others, and correspondence are found throughout. These materials are arranged by family, genus and species in Engelmann's own system.
The correspondence is primarily letters to Engelmann, arranged alphabetically by correspondent, relating to botany, botanical surveys, and expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Institutions and other agencies of the U.S. government. The expeditions include the Emory expedition in New Mexico, the Fremont expedition in the Rocky Mountains and California, Hayden expedition on the upper Missouri River and Colorado, and the Nicollet, Powell, Simpson, Wheeler, Whipple, and Wilkes expeditions. Many of the letters include descriptions of local and national politics. There is extensive correspondence with Smithsonian representatives. The correspondence is in English, German, and French. Translations in English are available for most of the German correspondence.
Digitization of this collection is supported by the Institute of Museum and Library Services under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act as administered by the Missouri State Library, a division of the Office of the Secretary of State.
Abbot, Henry L. 1831-1927
Office of Expeditions & Surveys, War Dept., Washington, DC
1 Ms. October 27, 1857
Abert, J. J. (John James) 1788-1863
Bureau of Topographical Engr., Washington, DC
2 Mss. December 10, 1858 – December 26, 1958
Subjects: Receipt and forwarding of box containing Engelmann's botanical collections from Capt. Simpson's survey party.
2 Mss. August 21, 1874 – November 2, 1874
Subjects: Request for information regarding variation in Yucca species.
Acknowledgement of receipt of material and seeds of Yucca.
People: J. B. Baker of Kew
Agassiz, Jean Louis Rudolph 1807-1874
Cambridge and "At sea between the Galapagos and Panama"
9 Mss. May 15, 1849 – June 20, 1875
Subjects: Variation of Opuntias on different islands and lack of variation in Cereus sp.
Allen, James Thomas 1831-1885
Superintendent of planting for UPRR; Union Pacific Railway, Omaha, NE
2 Mss. September 23, 1882 – March 17, 1886
Subjects: Planting various Pinus, Abies and Picea and their adaptation to different locales, e.g. Cheyenne Pass.
People: J. H. Masters and Robert Douglas
Allen, John Alphonse 1863-1916
New Haven, CT
2 Mss. January 29, 1882 – January 15, 1883
Subjects: Request for identification of undetermined Picea and Juncus. (Includes extensive descriptions of Juncus).
Allen, Thomas 1813-1882
Office of the State Board of Centennial Manager (Pres.); St. Louis, MO
1 Ms. November 22, 1875
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to write a memoir or essays about Missouri plants. Engelmann’s response is on the verso.
Allen, Timothy Field, M.D. 1837-1902
Brooklyn and New York City [NY]
9 Mss. July 1, 1860 – January 15, 1884
Subjects: Request for bit of Chara from various locales, western Marsilea and Characeae Americanae Exsiccatae.
People: Braun, Cassino, Eaton, Hooker, Helmaier, Gray.
Alvord, Benjamin 1813-1884
Jefferson Barracks, MO; Boston, MA; Fort Gratiot, MI; Washington, DC
5 Mss. February 13, 1844 – February 26, 1882
Subjects: Silphium lacinatum, its peculiar characteristics and range. Lactuca with similar characteristics.
Alvord, William 1833-1904
San Francisco, CA
1 Ms. August 11, 1881
Subjects: Yucca macrocarpa seeds germinating at Golden Gate Park.
Anderson, Charles Lewis 1827-1910
Santa Cruz, CA
2 Mss. October 26, 1871 – January 15, 1873
Subjects: Request for information on Yucca Junci of North America.
Specimens of Pinus insignis sent from Monterey, CA.
People: Bolander, Dr. Canfield and Gray visiting him in Santa Cruz, (California).
Andersson, Nils Johan 1821-1880
4 Mss. July 27, 1858 – March 24, 1874 (2 correspondence in German with English translation)
Subjects: Sending Engelmann a box of Galapagos (Islands) plantsin exchange for American plants.
Andras, John C [1832-1924?]
3 Mss. February 8, 1861 – March 6, 1868
Subjects: Andras' procedure for germinating seeds and growing Rhipsalis.
An account of Andras' travels from 1863-1868.
Andrews, Geo. (Mrs.)
1 Ms. July 19, 1879
Subjects: Engelmann's query about the late Dr. Rugel's plant collection, particularly Isoetes from Texas.
Discovery of the fact that Dr. Rugal's birthplace was Wirtemburg.
People: Dr. Ferdinand Ignatius Xavier Rugel 1806-1879
Arends, Friedrich [1782-1861?]
1 Ms. August 17, 1855 (German-no translation)
Arthur, Joseph Charles 1850-1942
Charles City, Fayette and Ames, IA
4 Mss. November 8, 1875 – November 13, 1882
Subjects: Publication of catalogue of the Phaenogams of Iowa.
Request for identification of plantsbeing prepared for the centennial.
Desire for information on Sagittaria in Engelmann's possession.
Plants: Psoralea, Marsilia, Lespedeza, Potentilla, Quercus with field notes for locations on the Des Moines River.
People: Al. [Alexander] Braun.
Places: Des Moines River.
Ascherson, Paul 1834-1913
3 Mss. July 19, 1867 – August 7, 1874 (German - with English translations done in 1998-9 by Westin and Eliasson)
Subjects: Exchange of publications. Compairson of Hungarian Cuscuta fragments. Classification of Zostera (Atlantic coast, Russia, India), Phyllospadix (California and Russia), Thalassia (Gulf coast). Mussels (Florida, Cuba). Specimen exchange.
People: Alexander Braun, Henry Bolander, Asa Gray, Louis François de Pourtalès, Wright, Alvan Chapman, Viviani, Morris, Pori.
Plants: Cuscuta, Zostera, Phyllospadix, Thalassia.
Atwood, Charles M.D. 1854-1928
1 Mss. May 26, 1881
Subject: Request for Engelmann’s monograph on North American Junci.
Austin, Coe Finch 1831-1880
New York City and Albany, NY; Closter, NJ
36 Mss. February 19, 1862 – December 12, 1876
Subjects: Descriptions of Spiranthes found on Staten Island and the Palisades. Callitriche found on the rocky cliffs of the Mississippi and elsewhere. Extensive discussions and field notes on Callitriche November 7, 1869 throughout the series; findings on Juncus with field notes. Lemna from various locations discussed throughout the series.
Wolffia from Cuba, New Jersey and other eight locations discussed in 1867 letters and those April 8, 1872 following. Sketches in letter. Hepaticae, his publications of a monograph, North American Hepatice, extensive January 2, 1869 ff. discussions and notes.
Questioning Sullivant's determination of Rellia heliocopica as to whether it is even January 2, 1872 a Hepatic!
Plants: Nuphar, new Danthonia, Riccia New Jersey pine Barren plants, Pyrola, Botrychium, Linum, Sphangum, Pogonia, Equisetum.
People: Gray (sent specimens and notes to him), Lesquereux (Austin received specimens and notes from him), Wright (Lemnaceae from Cuba), Nuttall, Macoun, Dr. Torrey, Hegelmaier, New York botanist interested in Lemans (September 23, 187?), Leggett, Parker, Henry Gillman (has Wolffia in flower), Schweinitz, Sullivant, Mr. James, and Col. E. Jewett.
Places: Sam's Point on Shawanqunk Mt.,New York; Orange County; Pigeon River Falls; Europe (and various plants from Europe); British America; Lake Superior; Lake Huron country; Japan; Pennsylvania; Oregon; Lake Ontario (Big Sandy Bay); Florida (expedition for Musci); Delaware County, New York; Arkansas; western mountains, and Patagonia.
Austin, E. P.
Assistant U. S. Lake Survey. Oconto, WI, Washington, DC
4 Mss. July 16, 1863 – April 6, 1867
Subjects: Sending box of specimens of Pinus banksiana and presinosa of which he was unable to find open cones. Includes descriptions on cones and field notes.
Plants: Pinus, Picea, and Abies.
Bache, Alexander Dallas 1806-1867
Superintendent, Coast Survey Office, Washington, DC
1 Ms. November 21, 1859
Subjects: Request for geographical information for North America profiles. (List of botanists by Engelmann on reverse of letter).
Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC; Carlisle, PA; Cleveland, OH; Elizabethtown, Rochester, NY
70 Mss. December 18, 1850 – May 9, 1881
Subjects: Request for procurement of specimens of reptiles from Missouri for centennial.
Limitations concerning purchase of books and transmission of articles of natural history or archaelology from abroad for Engelmann and Shaw; possibility of obtaining the items by exchange or donations rather than by direct purchase. Engelmann's collecting of acting as director of collections of plants and animals for the Smithsonian.
Formulas for preservative. (Feb., 1859) (Apr. 27, 1855).
Financial and transportation arrangements for collections.
Disturbances in the Smithsonian.
Details of printing illustrations.
Expeditions to the Bering Straits and Northern California.
Collectors: Thos. C. Porter, Dr. Drake, Dr. H. C. Prout, Mr. M. Rengil, Dr. Leidy, Mr. Culbert, Fendler, Wislizenus, Dr. Le Conte, Dr. Hammond, Mr. Harvey, Charles Wright, Dr. Carl Scheryer of Vienna, Rearney, Price Paul, Major Emory, Dr. Berlandier, Lt. Donaldson at Ft. Union and Lt. Mullen at St. Paul, Dr. Hayden, John Polts of Chihuahua, Glasgow Bros., Dr. Bigelow, Dr. J. S. Newberry, Dr. Sterling, Lt. Warren, T. O. Weyel, Robert Rennicott, Dr. Cories, Dr. Parry, Prof. W. H. Brewer, Bolander, Dr. Palmer, Mr. Sander, Agents & Capt. van Vliet, Choteau & Co.,General S. Churchill, Prof. Lichtenstein and the Prussian Council, Prof. Henry Henkels.
Baird, William F. 1830-? (from 1880 census)
Agent, Bloomington Nursery (Baird & Tuttle, Agents) Bloomington, IL
1 Ms. January 27, 1881
Subjects: Request for determination of wild grape by seed enclosed and description.
People: Dr. Vasey.
Baker, Charles Henry
1 Ms. August 31, 1878
Subjects: Request for information on localities where Nelumbium luteum may be found.
Baker, John Gilbert 1834-1920
Royal Herbarium, Kew
4 Mss. October 1, 1870 – November 5, 1873
Subjects: Mr. Wilson Saunders establishing Refugium Botanicum with intentions of a yearly publication. Mr. Saunder's bankruptcy and collections dispersed.
Extensive discussion of Yucca and related plants and their study in England being in a cloudy state.
Statement that Engelmann misinformed about Yucca treculiana Carriere.
Set of Yucca specimens cultivated in England forwarded through Smithsonian.
Plant naming rules.
Plants: Hesperalõe, Sedum, Echeveria, Scilla, Ledebouria, Agave, Yucca.*
People: Principal men cultivating Yucca in England: Mr. Thos. Moore, Rev. Ellacombe, Mr. Adair, Dr. Parry, Dr. Gray, and H. G. Reichenbach.
Bandelier, Adolph Francis Alphonse 1840-1914
11 Mss. March 6, 1862 – December 23, 1882 (Some translated from German)
Subjects: Meteorological observations in Highland.
Receipt of cacti from Engelmann.
Bandelier's son's expedition to Vera Cruz.
Bandelier's archaeological studies.
Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter 1809-1889
Chairman of the Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC
1 Ms. May 20, 1864
Subjects: Design for the seal of the National Academy of Sciences.
Barnes, George William 1825-1890
President, San Diego Society of Natural History, San Diego, CA
1 Ms. November 23, 1875
Subjects: Relationship between tree and forest culture on the falls of rain and snow on western prairies and railroads.
Barroeta, Gregorio Corbalan 1831-1906
San Luis Potosi, Mexico
7 Mss. September 4, 1878 – April 25, 1882
Subjects: Opuntia tunicata, common name Clarellina, with field notes.
Sending Tuna cardona, Tuna cuija, Opuntia and Agave seeds.
Description of lechuguilla, Palma.
Description of uses and origin of 'Amolli.'
Discussion of fibers and mescal alcohol from Agave.
Results of snow on vegetation in Tierra Caliente.
Sending specimens of Yucca and palms in roadworks between San Luis and Tampico.
Meterological investigations of 1880 from San Luis Potosi.
People: Dr. C. C. Parry, Dr. Ed. Palmer and Mr. von Mueller.
Places: Monterey, San Antonio, Texas; and Monterey, Mexico.
Bartholf, Dr. John H.
U. S. Army, Camp Harney, OR
9 Mss. April 5, 1875 – June 2, 1876
Subjects: Sending seeds and specimens of Ranunculus, Viola (Nuttall's) with field notes and soil conditions noted.
Plants: Camas, Ranunculus, Phlox, Cerasus, Schrankia, Scilla, Camassia, Astragalus, Heliotrope, Eastern quamash, Hyacinth, Mallows, Prunus, and Pomeae.
People: Capt. Bendire.
Barton, Edward Hall 1796-1859
New Orleans, LA
3 Mss. April 15, 1854 – January 10, 1856
Subjects: Climate and meteorological conditions in New Orleans particularly as related to yellow fever, cholera and heat related conditions, with climate records kept for Engelmann; report of the Sanitary Commission and reports for the Smithsonian.
People: La Roche, Dr. Barnes.
Bary, Heinrich Anton de 1831-1888
Strasbourg/ Strassburg France/Germany
6 MSS April 24, 1868- March 1880
German originals. Transliterations and translations.
Cythis biology; cholera contagium "fraud"; Yucca pollination;Specimen exchanges and associated transport problems. University and city rebuilding. Health problems of family and friends.
Plants: Characaea; Cythis; Prosopanche; Ranunculus; Azolla; Okra; Vitio; Yucca.
Animals: Antiarch; Prodoxa; Colorado beetles
People: Ernst Hallier; Dr.Finder; Hermann Müller; Schimpfer; Braun; Mrs. Caspary; Buchinger
Note: 1st Ms. is from de Bary to Braun and was forwarded to Engelmann.
Bastin, Edison Sewell 1843-1897
The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
1 Ms. August 12, 1877
Subjects: Indentification of cactus from Pine Station in northwestern Indiana.
Baston, L. B.
Captain, U. S. Army, Fort Leavenworth, MO
1 Ms. August 25, 1847
(Letter to Lt. Col. Aeneas. E. Mackay -1850)
Subjects: Receipt of plant collections from the West.
Baugh, Edwin. P. 1831-1888
Baugh & Sons, Manufacturer of Animal Charcoal, Philadelphia, PA
1 Ms. February 26, 1881
Subjects: Request for information on petrified bone from Dallas, Texas, received from H. B. O'Reilly and on locating mineral phosphate in the West.
Imperial German Consulate, St. Louis, MO
3 Mss. September 3, 1881 – October 22, 1881
Subjects: Receipt of cacti and request for information on cultivation of pecan and black walnut trees in Germany.
Bebb, Michael Schuck 1833-1895
Fountaindale, Springfield and Rockford, IL
U. S. Pension Office; U. S. Patent Office; Washington, DC
21 Mss. April 22, 1859 – July 7, 1882
Subjects: Juncus,* Salix,* and Quercus* collections and determinations in Sierra Nevada, California and Colorado.
Quercus hybridization experiments.
Engelmann's trip to San Francisco.
Plants: Alismaceae, Pulsatilla, Ranunculus, Draba, Geum, Castilleia, Lithospermum, Sagittaria and Cypripedium collections in northern Illinois.
People: Dr. Chapman - Bebb questions his Juncus determinations.
Mr. Tatnall, Lindheimer, Mr. E. Hall, Mr. Canby, Mr. Olney, Andersson, Hartweg, Dr. Hooker, Gray's herbarium, Geyer's collections, Watson, Babcock and Dr. Parry.
Beccari, Oloardo 1843-1920
Director of Botanical Garden and Museum, Florence, Italy. (translations)
3 Mss. April 2, 1879 – April 8, 1880
Subjects: Agave, Yucca, and wild vines from America. Beccari's resignation as director of the museum.
Beck, Charles 1827-1906
Martindale Conservatory and Green Houses, Dayton, OH
1 Ms. July 14, 1879
Subjects: Propagation of Agave and offer of some to Engelmann.
Beckwith, Edward Griffen 1818-1881
2 Mss. December 14, 1854 – May 22, 1855
Subjects: Error in Engelmann's report (for the Pacific RR).
People: Dr. Jacob (aka James) Heinrich Wilhelm Schiel.
Behr, Hans Herman 1818-1904
4 Mss. July 11, 1860-March 8, 1864.
Subjects: Inabililty to furnish native California plants de to lack of time, equipment and specimens. Desire to obtain butterfly specimen from St. Louis area. Problems with Natural History Society.
Plants: Ceanothus, Chenopodium, Erigeron, Garrya, Austratian acacia, Kennedia, Clianthus, Eucalyptus, Pittosporum, Typha, Nelumbium, Nuphar, Alismtaceae, Cuscuta, Sagittaria, Salicornia, Euphorbia, Pterospora, Pinus, Castilleja, Calochortus, cactus, Rhus, Cotinus, Neurada, Buxus, Cressa, Isomeris, Quercus, Adenostoma.
People: Enno Sander, Albert Kellogg, Mr. Roder, Henry Bollander.
Places: San Fransico, Los Angeles, San bernadino, San Diego, Baja, Clear Lake.
Bendire, Charles 1836-1897
Capt., U. S. Army. Camp Harney, OR; Fort Walla, Washington Territory
16 Mss. November 7, 1874 – May 14, 1879
Subjects: Descriptions and collections of plants at each location.
Good descriptions of locale where collections made.
Nez Perce campaign and court martial of Bendire.
Yakima Indian tribe.
Collection of skulls for Engelmann's son.
Plants: Artemisia, Pinus, Juniperus, mountain mahogany, willows, cottonwoods, wild fica vines, Viola beckwithii,* wild cherry, buttercups.
Places: Yellowstone River, Fort Boise, John Day River.
Bennett, (Mrs. Charles H.)
Pipe Stone City, Pipe Stone County, MN
1 Ms. July 10, 1883
Subjects: Sending Engelmann cacti specimens in response to request of Prof. Warren Upham, Assistant to State Geologist, with descriptions of plants.
Bennett, James Lawrence 1832-1904
Herbarium, Brown University, Providence, RI
2 Mss. November 18, 1880 – April 8, 1881
Subjects: Delay in determinations of Mr. Olney's material prepared for his "Carices Boreali-Americanae"; [Henry] Eggert's collection for Bennett.
Bentham, George 1800-1884
4 Mss. April 20, 1858 – October 21, 1879
Subjects: North Brazil and Venezuela plant collection for sale from Mr. Spruce. Planchon's arrangement of Araliaceae in Revue Horticole. Wright's notes on Hong Kong plants, e.g. Cassia. Descriptions of Phoradendron as compared to Arceuthobium. Extensive discussion of Coniferae. (Aug., 1879) systematic arrangement.
People: de Candolle, Hooker
See also Box 12, Botanical Notebook 27, folder 5 (May 23, 1879).
Berge, Ernst von 1836-1897
1 Ms. February 12, 1883
Subjects: Prospective negotiations for cacti as a commercial venture, mentioning Baron Eggers, Messrs. Haage and Schmidt (Seedsmen) and Mr. P. A. von Essen.
Bernays, Dr. Francis Jacob 1818-1894
St. Genevieve, MO
1 Ms. February 8, 1877 (German - no translation)
Subjects: Glycine chinensis, etc.
Bertolet, Robert Morris 1846-1882
Fort Bayard, NM
1 Ms. November 5, 1877
Subjects: Collections of Agave and Quercus for Engelmann.
People: Mr. Edward Greene.
Bessey, Charles Edwin 1845-1915
Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, IA
4 Mss. August 2, 1876 – February 21, 1881
Subjects: Requests for material on Dr. Engelmann for planned publication "Progress of Botany in the U. S. in the Year 1880" to be in American Naturalist.
(Letter of Sept. 4, 1880 directed to Dr. George J. Engelmann, Jr. as Engelmann is in the West).
Bigelow, John Milton 1804-1878
Camp at the mouth of the Canon on Rio Grande sixty miles below San Elceano, TX; near El Paso del Norte; Camp Sumner opposite Presidio del Norte; Eagle Pass, San Antonio, TX; Steam Boat "Empire State", Ohio River; Lancaster, OH; Steamer "James Robb"; Fort Smith, AR; Albuquerque (NM)
12 Mss. January 24, 1782 – November 9, 1853 Folder 1 Oversize Box
Subjects: Bigelow's collections as part of the survey of Lt. A. W. Whipple.
The final results were published in Reports of Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Vol IV. 1856.
Plants: Musci collections sent to Mr. Sullivant for determination, Cereus* and Opuntia* from El Paso and Lake Gusman, Fouquiera, Bignonieae, Opuntia gracilis compared with O. vaginata, Cereus dasyacanthus,* Cereus roemeri,* Mamillaria* (notes from Eagle Pass, Texas), Yucca* Lycopcdiaceae, Anhalonium (synonym for Mamillaria), Mamillaria and Cereus relating to controversy with Mr. Wright.
People: Dr. Gray, Dr. Torrey, Mr. Sullivant, Mr. Wright, Major Emory, Wislizenus' report, Dr. Parry, Mr. Schott, Mr. Sweet.
Places: Leona Station, E. Texas; Frontera; Cibilo; Rio Colorado trip with Lt. Whipple.
Lancaster, OH; Davenport, [IA]
26 Mss. February 13, 1855 – January 27, 1859 Folder 2 Oversize Box
Subjects: Bigelow confers with Engelmann about publication of the report on the collections in the Southwest with Lt. Whipple's party. Discussions of difficulties.
Bigelow's map of cacti indicating sections and subsections and species by color.
Bigelow's making a living from medicine and surgery.
Rewriting of report, delays, discussion of mistakes in names of specimens in the report.
Speculation about Congressional bills regarding financing of Pacific Railroad
Plants: Cereus,* Yucca,* and Opuntia* collections (May 19, 1855); Yucca - description of that growing near Sierra Nevada. Echinocactus - history of collection sites (July 16, 1855). Opuntia germination (Aug. 10, 1855). Pinus and wood of Sequoia, Mamillaria.*
People: Lt. Tidball, Mollhauser, Linnaeus' divisions and Dr. Torrey, Capt. Whipple, Prince Salm's division of Cerei, Mr. Ewing, Dr. Shumard, Jefferson Davis (Secretary of War), Le Conte, Mr. Campbell - pine cone drawings and collections from Mohave and Mr. Roetter's pine cone drawings.
Places: Congressional Garden in Washington; Cactus Pass; Colorado (Echinocactus collections).
Office of A & A W. Lake Survey, Detroit, MI
4 Mss. March 27, 1863 – September 20, 1863 Folder 3 Oversize Box
Subjects: Bigelow's meteorological observations for Engelmann.
Engelmann' skill as a meteorological observer.
Discussion of wet bulb, dry bulb techniques, and instructions given by Smithsonian.
Observer; Engelmann's psycrometer better.
Collections in Lake Superior District.
Plants: Picea nigra and alba - Engelmann has found growing as a native, also from Green Bay. Descriptions of locale where spruces were collected, both living and herbarium specimens.
People: Prof. Guyot, Mr. Austin, Dr. Parry and Mr. Roetter.
15 Mss. March 20, 1865 – November 23, 1865 Folder 4 Oversize Box
Subjects: Collections of water plants, particularly water lilies, for Engelmann as part of the Lake Survey.
Collections of John A. Paine in Utica, New York and environs.
Sending of abstract of the barometer and thermometer readings for past year.
Quotes Paine's description of Nymphaea, various species. (Mar. 23, 1866)
Reflections on the development of his botanical career. (op. cit)
Plants: Callitriche from Bay of Bodega and San Francisco, California, Nymphaea, various species. - extensive discussions and notes; Isoetes; Nuphar, various species. - extensive discussion and notes; Nais zanichella - Lindley's hydral alliances description; Potomogeton and Nitella - fruit from Bloody Run.
People: Dr. Parry, Winchell's list of Isoetes and Callitriche, Dr. Torrey, Gray, E. P. Austin in Nautical Almanac Office, Cambridge, Mr. Schott, John A. Paine.
Places: Bloody*; Common Creek, Detroit River; Grand Marais, Park Marsh*; May's Creek and Belle Isle.
36 Mss. June 8, 1866 – May 11, 1874 Folder 5 Oversize Box
Subjects: Collections of water plants for Lake Survey, particularly Juncaceae. Collections of Vitaceae for Engelmann, references to Winchell's cat.
Discussion of Austin's collection of Juncus.
Description of locales where Nuphar was collected. (6-9-1866)
Methods of storage of specimens. (6-25-1866)
Light hearted controversy between Parry and Bigelow.
Difficulties in collections of flower and fruit of Lemna and Wolffia.
Reflections on plans for living "Cactareum."
Plants: Juncus,* parasitic fungus from Nesaea verticillata - effect on cattle. Nuphar, Nelumbiaceae and Cobombaceae, Equisetum, Carex, Lemna,* Wolffia,* Vitis, Sambuci, Nicotiana, Libocendrus, Loranthaceae, and Sargassum.
People: E. P. Austin, Schott, Wright, Thurber, W. Wheeler of Lake Survey, Elliot, Dr. Sartwell, Father Holzer, Prof. Leidy, Lewis, Mr. Gilamn, Mr. Foote, Mr. Marr of Lake Survey, Filman, Lindley, Burnett, and Winchell.
Bishop, James Nathaniel 1851-1906
3 Mss. March 26, 1878 – May 3, 1878
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann, information on Cactaceae.
Black, A. R. (Archibald Ray), 1823-1889
Rocky Point, New Hanover Co., NC
1 Ms. May 10, 1871
Subjects: Pine collections for Engelmann.
Blodget, Lorin, 1823-1901
Philadelphia, [PA] Office of the Board of Trade.
2 Mss. June 6, 1853 – June 20, 1863
Subjects: Meteorological observations at different altitudes.
Böcking, H. V. (Boecking)
Blair Co., PA
1 Ms. December 15, 1859 (German with translation)
Subjects: Exchange of North American plants for alpine flora of Pennsylvania.
Boissier, Edmond Pierre 1810-1885
Geneva [Switzerland]; Valynes or Valeynes, Canton Appenzall.
21 Mss. May 14, 1859 – December 28, 1887 (French - some translations)
People: Friedrich Klotzsch, Alphonse de Candolle, Asa Gray, Georg Mettenius, Alexander Braun, Georges François Reuter.
Places: Paris, London.
Bolander, Henry Nicholas 1831-1897
San Francisco, CA; Ukiah; Mendocino County, Monterey, [CA]; Yosemite Valley, [CA]; Mariposa Big Tree Grove and Sacramento, CA
54 Mss. October 15, 1863 – May 16, 1878 (Mostly German with translations)
Subjects: Bolander is a teacher who collects botanical specimens for various botanists in the Eastern U. S., European botanist and collects for and complains to Engelmann about his treatment by other botanists.
Preparation of catalogue of Yosemite plants.
Preparation of distribution map of conifers.
Plants: Pinus* - Douglas' findings. Sequoia,* Carices at high altitudes, California mosses and other cryptograms (in later letters interested in working with these himself), Juncus, Nuphar, oaks* (Kellogg's collections), Chara from Rapier River, Marsilia, Selaginella, Isoetes, aquatic and bog plants* (10-19-1865), Callitriche, Cast. ohrysophylla, Carex, grasses, Tsuga, Sanicula, and Ranunculus* - dispute of identification by Prof. Wood. Lemna, Cupressus, at Tamal Pais, Abies question, Yucca, Calamagrostis, dicentra.
People: Prof. Brewer's survey, Mr. Lelson, Prof. Gray, Prof. Tuckerman, Dr. Behr, Dr. Torrey, Hall, Bebb, Canby, Parry, Canfield, Prof. Whitney, Kellog, Murray, Dr. Hillebrand's collection in Sierra, Baron Leonard, Mr. Lenormand, de Candolle and oaks of San Francisco, Mr. King, Arenson, Braun, Dr. Gottsche, Prof. Palatore, Dr. Cooper, Dr. Panz, Dr. Bernstein.
Places: Monte de Diablo, Marion Co., Nevada Territory, Santa Cruz, Vesalia, Anderson Valley, Aubrun, Tamal Pais,* Clear Lake,* Santa Barbara coal oil fields, Reese River in Nevada, Geyersville, Rapier River,* Marysville, Lake Borax, Mission Dolores - western suburb of San Francisco, Natahole River, Bolander's trip to Guatemala.
Bolle, Carl 1821-1909
5 Mss. July 11, 1858 – January 3, 1880 (German with translations)
Subjects: His work with Gramineae and exchanges of plants.
Interest in trees, particularly Ulmus*.
Plants: Picea, Yucca, Pinus from Serbia, with climate relationship.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Thurber, Alexander von Homeyer, Mr. Pancik, Sargent, Berlin Committee on Woodland Science.
Places: Estate in Scharfenberg, Potsdam, Germany, Norway, East Prussia, Vienna.
Booth, John Cornelius 1836-1909
Klein Flottbeck, Germany
1 Mss. January 24, 1880
Subject: Request for publication information about Douglas Pine and American trees.
People: Carl A. Bolle, J. Hooker.
Boott, William 1805-1886
18 Mss. September 1, 1866 – April 3, 1882
Subjects: Collections of Isoetes* for Engelmann et al.
Harbor Commission affecting growing conditions for plants.
Pond conditions, mineral deposits caused by tidal flows.
Map of Isoetes collections. (September 1866)
Plants: Isoetes,* Scirpius, various species; Aster and Solidago; Potamogeton, Spartina and Carex with habitat descriptions where Isoetes grows; Scirtius growing with Isoetes*.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Durant(?).
Bornet, Edouard 1828-1911
Paris and Rutibes, [France] s/b Antibes France?
2 Mss. July 7, 1875 – July 20, 1876 (French with translations)
Subjects: Discussion of Yucca, Opuntia and Agave.
Cypresses cultivated by Mr. Thuret.
Collections in Antibes and Nice, France
People: M. Decaisne, Asa Gray.
2 Mss. November 21, 1854 – January 30, 1855 (German – translations)
Subject: Shipment of snakes to Engelmann. Request for cactus seeds for Mr. Moritz Leeger.
Bracht, Felix, M.D. 1808-1882
Valley P. Office, Guadaloupe County, TX
1 Photo -1873
People: Bracht, Felix (portrait)
Valley P. Office, Guadaloupe County, TX
1 Ms. -1878 - 5-1-73 (Translated from German)
Bracht to Engelmann
Subjects: Lamenting poor attitude communities have towards doctors and scientists; feels American politics is the “pits.”
Diagnosis of icterus.
People: Lindheimer, Professor Gaillard, Professor Kapp.
Places: New Braunfels.
Brandegee, Townshend Stith 1843-1925
Canon City, CO; Camp on the La Plata; Berlin, CT; Camp on the Cristones; Canon of the Arkansas; Canoncito, Santa Fe, NM; Alpine, Coal Ck. Canon, Camp Mt. Marcellina, Irwin, St. Elmo, CO
34 Mss. April 7, 1873 - December 13, 1882
Subjects: An extensive correspondence relating to collections in the Southwest which includes many detailed field notes and diagrams.
Plants: Abies,* (11-27-1874); Cactaceae, Cuscuta, Pinus,* Quercus,* Picea, Isoetes, Potentilla, Menzanthes, Lemna, Myriophyllum, Juniperus,* Mentzelia,* Arceuthobium as a parasite on various conifers, Galium,* Phoradendron.*
People: Prof. Thomas Porter,* D. C. Eaton, J. H. Redfield - aid in identifying specimens.
Clarence King's report, Mr Putman, Dr. Briggs, Mr. Knapp, E. Hall, Mrs. Cheetz, Dr. Gray, Mr. Watson, Dr. Newberry, McComb's expedition, Hayden's annual report, Dr. Hooker, Prof. Peck, Mr. Sargent, D. Brigg's death, Dr. Gray, Mr. Thompson and Mr. Putman - discussion of Mentzelia, Mr. Meehan - discussion of Abies concolor.
Places: Oak Creek Canon, Colorado Springs, Pikes' Peak, South Park Road, Ute Pass Road, Fremont County, Sangre de Cristo Mts., Las Pinos Pass, La Platta Mts., Rio Grande, Utah, Arizona, Sierra La Plata, Canon City,* Manitou, San Juan Valley, Animas Valley, Rio Manios, Arkansas Canon, head of Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, Mill Mill Creek, My Ouray, Canon of the Arkansas, Platte Canon, Santa Fe, St. Elmo, Gunnison City, Ute Reservation.
Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich 1805-1877
1 Ms. April 15, 1866 (German - no translation) Folder 1
Braun to E. Hall. Athens.
5 Ms. February 11, 1867 - January 18, 1868
Braun to George Engelmann
Subjects: Isoetes. George Engelmann Jr.’s best options for his education. Help with identification of Characeae.
People: George Engelmann, Jr.
1 Ms. March 18, 1866 (Translated from German) Folder 2
Engelmann to Braun
Subjects: Discussion of Isoetes.
People: Mettenius, Consul Flügel, Caspary.
Places: Leipzig, Königsberg, Bonn, Bremen, Hamburg, Liverpool.
16 Mss March 18, 1866 – August 2, 1870
Engelmann to Braun
Subjects: Extensive discussion of Isoetes species determinations, naming, and distinctions with some lists of collections sites, notes, etc.
Brief discussion of Lemna and Equisetum sp.
Braun, Johannes 1859-1893
1 Ms. May 1, 1883
Subjects: Exchange of plants, particularly cactus.
Brendel, Friedrich 1820-1912
29 Mss. May 13, 1852 – May 12, 1883
Subjects: Brendel's medical practice and that of others in the German population of Peoria.
Brendel's work with geographical distribution of plants.
Collections of reptiles and fish for Washington.
Plants: Pentalophus, Androsace, Bryophytes, Pulsatilla, Anemonanthea, Astragalus, Phara, Cheilanthes, Glumaceae, Nelumbiuma, Quercus,* Peraphyllum, Paspalum, Brunnichia, and Hydrolea in Pulaski County.
People: Mr. Wieland, Fremont, Emory, Carl Muller, Oberhauser, Wislizenus, Jacques Gay's work with Quercus, Grebel, Mr. Ord of St. Louis, Martin and Jens Vahl with biographical information, Dr. Parry.
Brewer, Thomas Mayo 1814-1880
Bar Harbor, ME
1 Ms. July 30, 1877
Subjects: A collector friend has difficulties with the Indians in Indian Valley, Idaho.
Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910
Office of the Geological Survey of California, San Francisco, CA
Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, New Haven, CT; Cambridge, MA
3 Mss. December 3, 1863 – May 14, 1864
46 Mss. January 2, 1865 – April 22, 1880
Subjects: Employment by the State Geological Society. Effects of altitude and temperature on growing plants.
Publication of Flora of California and Botany of the Western U. S. including requests for help from Engelmann with the plants he is most expert with.
Work in Microscopic Fungi "rusts, smuts, mildew, etc."
Plants: Coniferae - Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, Sequoia Cactaceae - Cereus, etc. (request for help with). Yucca,* Nuphar, Callitriche, Isoetes, Oenothera, Cuscuta, Agave, Loranthaceae, collected by Brewer, Cooper and Horn.
Quercus,* Vitis - Cupressus macrocarpa - notes in November 14, 1879.
Juncus* collections with descriptive notes in San Luis Obispo, Santa Margarit Valley, upper Salinas Valley, Sierras, "Laguna" southwest of the Soledad Mission, San Francisco. (3-7-1866)
Ephedra used as a tea by prospectors and for medicinal properties.
People: Mr. Bolander,* Eaton,* Thurber, Boott, Dr. Parry, Dr. Kellogg, Dr. Gray,* Prof. Whitney,* Dr. Hillebrand, Manzel(?), Wossnessensky, Mr. Gabb of California Geological Survey, Mr Watson,* Dr. Lobb Murrey, Savage of Salt Lake, Hoffman, Dr. C. L. Anderson of Santa Cruz, Whitney, Jeffries' collections in British Columbia.
Places: Sierras at various altitudes, Ebbett's Pass, Camp Ross, peninsula of Lower California, Roky Mts., Monterey, Siskeyou Mts., Santa Lucia Mts., Point Conception, valleys of Lake Tahoe, San Gabriel, San Joaquin, Mt. Shasta, Silver Trail from Calaveras Big Tree Grove to Silver Mountain, Clark's Ranch, San Bernhardin Mts., Duffield's Ranch, in hills of Sierras between Yuba and Toulumne River, Picea collected in 1864 in southern Sierra Nevada.
Briscoe, Thomas D.
Uxbridge, MA; Cincinnati, OH
3 Mss. October 31, 1870 – November 21, 1882
Subjects: Request for plants, particularly Azolla.
Britton, Nathaniel Lord 1859-1934
SI[Staten Island], NY
3 Mss. July 4, 1879 – December 10, 1879
Subjects: Opuntia and Juncus collected by Prof. Peck on Coney Island and Mr. H. P. Worcester of Norfolk, VA; Torrey Club.
Broadhead, Garland Carr 1827-1912
Pleasant Hill, Cass County, MO; Toronto and El Dorado, KS
53 Mss. April 22, 1864 – May 27, 1882
Subjects: Broadhead is a geologist working on the state surveys and collecting for Engelmann.
Blooming dates given in many of the spring and fall letters.
Meteorological observations and the effects of weather and climate on plants.
Observations on the effect of the substrata on distributions of plants; in many cases gives exact locations for particular species.
Plants: Quercus,* Erythronium, Baptisia,* Lithospermum, Astragalus, Verbena,* Amphiachyris, Boltonia,* Corydalis,* Salvia,* Anemone, Collinsia, Pencedanum, Troximon,* Aquilegia,* Delphinium,* Vicia, Trillium, Amphicarpaea, Apios, Impatiens, Lophanthus, Sabbatica, Gentiana,* Hibiscus, Ipomaea, Asters, Viola,* Dicentra, Isoxynum, Lobelia, peculiar orchid,* Eupatorium connection with milk sickup, Leman, Xanthium, Dodecatheon, Tecoma, various grasses, Gerardia,* Silene, Dipteracanthus, Capsella, Claytonia, Plantago, Cleome, Vitis,* Yucca angustifolia, Asclepias, Penstemon, Solanum, Abies (Pseudotsuga, Callinhoe.
Places: Collections in Missouri, (several counties in both Missouri and Kansas) Kansas, Illinois, Colorado, New Mexico with specific locale given for a particular species collected in many instances.
Description on the geology in Cass County Missouri with plant associations. (4-22-1864)
Brongniart, Adolphe Theodore 1801-1876
1 Ms. March 6, 1860 (French -English translation)
Subjects: Brief, general description of cacti, Gramineae and Cuscuta. Request for cacti and Graminae seeds.
Brown, Addison 1830-1913
Vice President, Torrey Club, New York, NY
1 Ms. November 7, 1879
Subjects: Work with adventive botany.
3 Mss. November 1, 1873 – January 28, 1874
Subjects: Criticism of Tryon's book on Molluska.
Brown, Benjamin Boyer, M.D. 1809-1863
St. Louis, MO; Sacramento, CA
3 Mss. February 8, 1840 – January 13, 1852
February 8, 1840 To Engelmann in Georgetown
March 11, 1840 To Engelmann in New York
January 13, 1852
Subjects: Collections in California.
Purchase and sale of medical instruments and Medical Society.
Brown, John Croumbie
1 Ms. November 14, 1873
Subjects: Development of forest sciences.
Bruhin, Thomas Aquina 1835-1896
New Coeln, WI
St. Helena, NE
6 Mss. October 26, 1874 – October 25, 1881 (German with some English translations)
Subjects: Request for aid with Euphorbia and Cuscuta in preparation of Prodromus florae Novae Coliniae.
Plants: Plants of Nebraska discussed with descriptions and disagreement with determinations of others: Euphorbia, Solidago, Oxybaphus, Helianthus, Chenopodium, Thalictrum, Viola, Phaseolus, Oenothera, Gaura, Archangelica, Pseudonismus, Veronia, Iva (drawing), Spiranthes.
Brunet, Ovide 1826-1876
9 Mss. December 26, 1862 – May 12, 1869 (French with English translations)
Subjects: Discussion of Abies species.
People: Filippo Parlatore, Karl Geyer, Asa Gray, Michel Durieu
Buchenau, Franz Georg Philip 1831-1906
22 Mss. September 9, 1865 – November 6, 1881 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Flora of Breman and East Friesland Islands.
Desire for exchange of specimens.
Elodea problems and possible solutions (in Europe).
Plants: Juncus from South America, Europe, Rocky Mts., Liebnau, 2nd German North Pole Expedition, New York, East Freisland Islands, species in Plantae Oregonensis, Himalayas. Alismaceae, Najadaceae, Convovulaceae, Luzula, Isoetes, Butomaceae, Echinodorus seeds, Sagittaria, Salicornia, Yucca, Rubus seeds, Pinus, Juncaceae monograph.
People: Great praise for Braun, Smithsonian, Janisch, Pfeiffer - "snail Pfeiffer", A. Gray (note in letter of 2-6-1868), Ascherson, Garcke, Prof. Dr. Grafe, Braun's fight with the Leopold Academy, Focke's publication, Rust, Dr. Schumacher, Dr. Boissier, Eichler working on Braun's paper, Gobel's criticism of Braun.
Buchinger, Jean Daniel 1803-1888
2 Mss. June 2, 1868 – August, 1868 (German - with English translation)
Subjects: Engelmann’s trip to Strasbourg. Meeting with Frederic Weber to discuss cacti. Inquiry about Melanie Kalmbacher.
Buckley, Samuel Botsford 1809-1884
Black's Bluff, Allenton, AL; New York, West Dresden, NY; Shreveport, LA
15 Mss. May 22, 1839 – February 28, 1860
Subjects: Desire for exchange of specimens, particularly fossils and shells for plant specimens.
Desire for rare plant specimens from St. Louis, Texas and Rocky Mts.
Collections in Texas.
Plants: Vitis which Engelmann wished him to collect, Cuscuta, Draba, Botschia.
People: Mr. Jean-Baptiste Duerinck (1809-1857) in Cincinnati, Andrew Buchanan in St. Louis, Dr. Prout, Dr.Short, Mr. Moses Curtis of North Carolina, Prof. Carpenter of Louisiana, Dr. Shumard - wish to spend summer with him in Texas, Lindheimer.
Places: Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River, mountains of Tennessee, North Carolina, Virgina, and Florida.
Budd, Joseph Lancaster 1834-1904
Iowa State Agriculture College, Ames, IA
1 Ms. May 26, 1880
Subjects: North American Abies.
Burbridge, Frederick William Thomas 1847-1905
The Garden Office, London, [England]
1 Ms. August 22, 1876
Burdick, Justin Herbert 1851-1939
7 Mss. March 21, 1881 – May 1, 1882
Subjects: Requests for identification of leek and Nevada specimens sent.
Burk, Issac 1816-1893
3 Mss. October 27, 1869 – February 22, 1878
Plants: Cynodon dactylon, Ranunculus repens, Juncus, Godetia, Gilia, Liquidambar.
- Bush, Benjamin Franklin 1858-1937
8 Mss. October 31, 1880 – August 6, 1883
- Collections for Engelmann and possible publication of a Missouri Flora.
- Physalis, Nasturtium, Cornus, Potentilla, Quercus, others.
(New species with habitat descriptions).
- Rev. McMann, George W. Letterman, Cameron Mann, Mary Murtfeldt, Dr. Gustav Egeling.
- Bush, Isidor 1822-1895
St. Louis; Bushberg Grape Nurseries Vineyards and Orchards, Brushberg, MO
5 Mss. November 21, 1874 – November 7, 1882
- Agreement to use Engelmann's classification in catalogue.
Development of stock with different rootstock.
- Clinton, Taylor, Bullet, Delaware - grape varieties.
- Prosper Jules Berckmans (pomologist), McMurtie (chief U. S. chemist).
- Butler, George Dexter 1850-1910
Little Rock, AR.; Atoka Indian Territory; Stringtown Indian Territory; Almont, IA; Oro Fino, Siskiyou County, CA
34 Mss. April 21, 1873 – June 16, 1880
- Collections for Engelmann in the Southwest, Iowa and California.
Discussion of disagreement between Bessey and Arthur vs. Burgess and its effect on botany.
Collection lists with dates and descriptions of locations and plants.
- Yucca, Tradescantia, Amianthium, Astragalus, Oxybaphus, Lathyrus, Sedum, Sagittaria, Amorpha, leguminous tress, Isoetes, list of oaks in vicinity, Plantago heterophylla - absent in region, Cooperia drummondii, Crataegus, Cercis, Nemastylis, Monarda, Hymenopappus, Vitis, Myosotis, Leptocaulis, Umbelliferae, Sertaria, Arenaria, Baptisia, Sayina, Galinus, Rhus, Luzula, Apoyon, Selenia, Penstemon, Corydalis, Prunus, Physalis species growing together, and Commelina collected or described in the Southwest.
Nelumbiaceae and Alisimaceae in area, Isoetes, Aesculus, Tradescantia, Callitriche, Taxus, Oxybaphus, honey locust, Coreopsis, Chenopodium, Salix and Populus and Vitis collected or described from the vicinity of Almont, Iowa.
(Names found only on collection lists are not given though much information is given on the lists).
- Parry, Sargent and Engelmann's intended visit to California. Mr. Boott, Prof. Hayden, Rev. E. L. Green in Yreka, Siskiyou County, California.