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Example: Charles Darwin, Carl Linnaeus
Example: Birds, Classification, Mammals
Contributed by Cambridge University Library
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deleted pinholes visible line connects passages
« » inserted count up from last line ÷* long division
Annotation Not Available

top-margin annotation p XXXIII Note Definition of “Antarctic”. I have I think been misled, & often in doubt by not knowing this definition earlier
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lines 14—13 annotation J. Lubbock you had better skip this first Chapter
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lines 17—20 annotation (Q) →
lines 15—17 score
line 16 underline "reproduce ... processes"

lines 18—23 score

lines 22—17 score
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lines 12—8 score

lines 5—1 score

lines 1—3 score
lines 5—6 score

lines 8—9 score

lines 14—12 score
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[continues overleaf] lines 11—9 score
lines 11—9 annotation —(Q)
line 1 score
line 1 annotation (Q)

lines 8—5 )

lines 17—19 score
lines 17—19 annotation

[continuation] lines 4—1 score
lines 4—1 annotation (Q)

lines 5—7 score

lines 12—10 score
line 11 underline "minute ... value"

lines 3—6 score
top-marginline 7 annotation shows that vars. ‹commonly› in these differnt in differnt countries

lines 12—14 score

lines 1—5 score

lines 7—9 score

lines 10—9 )

lines 13—18 score

[continues overleaf] 4 score

lines 3—1 double score
line 2 underline "transport of one sex"

[continuation] 2 underline "we ... common"
line 2 at "typical" annotation of the species
lines 1—3 annotation (Q)

lines 16—14 score
lines 12—10 score

line 7 score
line 7 underline "of ... seas"
line 7 annotation V. Hervey Whether absent in Tropics

lines 22—20 score
lines 24—18 annotation Decandolle 250,000 I think !

line 9 underline "did ... Zealand"

lines 17—16 score

lines 8—7 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
lines 8—7 score
lines 6—5 score
line 6 underline "greater ... peculiar"
lines 8—5 annotation how many common to North? See further on

lines 4—1 score
lines 4—3 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 4 underline "100 genera"
line 3 underline "confined to"
line 2 underline
line 2 at "one ... species"
bottom-margin annotation different ?? if differnt, points to some ancient connection. —

lines 1—3 score
line 2 underline "placed ... Africa"
line 2 at "close" annotation comparatively
line 2 at "Africa" annotation about 1600 miles !

lines 4—5 double score
lines 4—5 annotation Xt01 exactly like White M & Europe. circumpolar cold
line 4 underline "Antarctic"
lines 4—5 underline "New ... Australia"
lines 4—5 annotation Xt02 Does this remark extend of Fuegia?
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon
t02 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon

lines 8—10 score

lines 11—14 double score in pale pencil
line 12 annotation in pale pencil X
lines 15—16 underline "many ... Tasmania"

lines 18—19 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
lines 22—23 underline "individuals ... scattered"
lines 22—25 annotation Yet Decandolle says often social!

line 12 underline "is ... related"
lines 15—2 annotation thy wd not be 2 natural orders, if there were many connecting links.—

lines 10—8 score in dark pencil
lines 10—8 annotation X (

line 1 underline "as ... elsewhere"

line 13 underline "the ... birds"
line 13 annotation are these land Birds, I think not.

lines 8—7 double score
lines 8—7 annotation in pale pencil X

lines 14—16 score in dark pencil
lines 14—15 annotation medium2 X
lines 17—19 double score in dark pencil
line 20 underline in reddish-brown crayondoubtful transcription "Chili"
line 20 annotation in reddish-brown crayon !
lines 21—24 score in dark pencil
lines 25—28 score

lines 16—13 score

lines 2—3 score in dark pencil
lines 9—13 score

lines 14—15 score
lines 18—23 {
lines 18—20 annotation division of Alpine Floras

lines 18—19 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 18 at "Those" annotation regions or Floras
lines 18—21 double score in reddish-brown crayon
lines 18—21 annotation But surely there are northern European forms.—

line 20 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 21 at "Alps" annotation (would you add Auckland & Cambell Isd & Kerguelen land? No)

line 22 underline "mountains"
line 22 annotation see Meyer
line 23 underline "Pacific Islands"
line 23 annotation Sandwich?

lines 11—6 score in pale pencil
lines 11—8 annotation cancelled do not quite understand
line 9 underline in reddish-brown crayon over pencil "Pacific Islands"
line 9 annotation whic
line 8 at "difference" annotation ⧟ ie show more species to be in common
line 8 underline "three"
line 8 annotation ?
line 7 underline "they"
line 7 annotation th differncs
lines 7—6 underline "adducing ... others"

line 5 at "Gunnera" annotation 1 ?
line 4 underline "Fagus"
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ ( Xt01 why These are Java, N. America, Europe. Give up)
bottom-margin annotation (Mem. Beech leaves before Glacial in T del Fuego)
line 1 annotation 17 gener
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon

lines 1—2 score
line 1 underline "the ... islands"
line 1 at "the" annotation Tropical
line 1 annotation which?
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lines 9—16 score
lines 10—11 annotation (Q)
line 16 underline "the ... islands"
lines 15—17 annotation whicht01 T. del Fuego ?
t01 - `which' in reddish-brown crayon

line 20 underline "of ... species"
lines 20—25 annotation — Can this be frm change of seed ? ‹so›
     (Mention under my Ch. 6)t01

line 22 underline "Sonchus"
line 22 annotation Vide (& algae)t02
t01 - `(Mention under ... 6)' in pale pencil
t02 - `(& algae)' in pale pencil

lines 11—7 score
lines 11—10 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 9 underline "are ... transit"
line 8 underline "have ... altitude"
line 8 annotation attributes apparently to ‹ice› altitude
lines 11—7 annotation very curious. So mammals in the 2 Americas — & Australia. Decandolle. Australia. & even C. of Good Hope —

line 7bottom-margin annotation Might it not be «No» that temperate plants of S. shores of Australia wished to get still further south & far from wishing to get north. Yes. The tropical plants wd. crowd the equator & some few might cross. Hence Borneo plants wd. have come frm equatorial regions.
     (No: it wd be that the southern plants wd be not driven out by by fresh arrivals from further south, or only feebly so.) ‹(Yes)›
     (But being driven out wd not make any difference in spreading.)
     (If cold first came on on N. side ⸮ I think it wd explain.)
     (If it requires time for some degree of acclimatisation then I think it wd certainy make differnce)
     (It wd. make great or some difference whether northern or southern forms first occupied th gaps in th Tropics; when once occupied, S. forms wd. have little chance of holding their own there .)
     (The mere numerical preponderance of N. forms, frm form of land wd. account perhps for it)

lines 15—18 score
lines 14—20 annotation if an individual dies suddenly, is his formation sudden?

lines 12—10 score
line 10 underline "Myrtaceae"
line 10 annotation any species in common p. xxx. 1 in common
line 10 at "Epacrideae" annotation p. xxx some in common
line 10 underline "Protaceae"
line 10 annotation Xt01 ←    do — not one only 2 altogether ?
bottom-margin annotation ‹⧟› This is all «fully» answered at p. xxx
     p xxx.    Compositae & Orchideae Australian genera. Surely there is considerably more affinity to Australia «with Tasmania» than to any other quarter of World, both in same species & genera «Yes p. xxx»t02 : this was vy impressive in looking over th Flora.
     vide Strezlecki whether Eucalypts formerly in Tasmania NO
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon
t02 - `Yes p. xxx' in pale pencil

lines 9—4 score

line 4 underline "often ... orders"
line 4 annotation ie vry distinct.

lines 5—7 score
lines 5—7 annotation !
lines 8—10 score in pale pencil
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lines 19—17 score
lines 21—17 annotation So at C. of Good Hope vy many bushes.

line 21 annotation in pale pencil Endemic
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line 20 underline "Phaenogamic"
lines 20—16 annotation ‹nearly› «more than » 2/3 of which peculiar or 507/730

line 12 underline "genera"
line 11 underline "Australia"
line 11 crossing-out "otherwise"
lines 12—11 annotation great increasing & native order.

line 8 underline "twelve species"
line 8 annotation & 5 genera .
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line 4 underline "Dammara"

line 2 underline "two ... Phyllocladus"

line 1 underline "New Zealand ... Caledonia"

line 3 underline "but Thuja"

line 6 underline "Atlantic"
line 6 annotation Canary Isd
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line 10 underline "one ... species"
line 10 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
lines 10—11 underline "Mimuli ... Ourisia
lines 8—15 annotation Xt01 of these Calceolaria seems th only special one to S. America why not Fuchsia mentioned.
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon

lines 13—14 score
lines 13—14 underline "all ... Tasmania"
line 16 underline "and ... Australian"

lines 19—20 underline "close ... species"
lines 22—27 score
line 24 underline "Corneae ... American"
lines 26—27 underline "Nesodaphne ... genus"
lines 22—27 annotation distant relations to S. America.

line 15 underline "Plants ... Countries"
lines 12—7 double score

line 11 {
line 11 annotation horizontally crossed 76 genera .......... are S. American — of which 17 not in Australia (p xxxii) or in Old World.
line 11 at "American" annotation of which only 12 not in Australia, & 29 «(some of them unaltered forms frm old temp: antarctic land. Yes)» not Europe; & 39 not in Antarctic
lines 15—11 annotation ‹(Q) p xxxii.› ( ‹(as well as in nmbr of genera)› Therefore I infer N. Zealand in species, as well as «such» genera «as» Fuchsia & Calceolaria, more allied to S. America than is Australia X?t01 )
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ Have you lists ?
     Xt02 of those 89 common «v (Q) p XXXII. —(17/76 of th genera to which these 89 species belong, are confined to New Zealand (ie not Australia) & America. «∴ are not Arctic.» see Q. p. XXXII This shows, again, much affinity betwen N. Zealand & America) — It clearly is not transport direct frm S. America to New Zealand which has caused affinity.» to N. Ze. & S. Amer. there are 29 not in Europe; «(How many of these not fd. N. of Equator?) see opposite page for 7 «of th 29» species; are there more?» which are these? are thy N. Asian, «or almost mundane except Europe» «1 is N. Asian» or are they all southern forms.
t01 - `X?' in reddish-brown crayon
t02 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon

line 10 at "above" annotation of th 50 indicate no particular affinity

line 9 at "4" annotation (These seem all world to me but wd require cold)
line 9 at "species" annotation come direct to Aust from North
line 9 at "etc" annotation Are these all Australian?t01 (p XXXII, 17 may have come by Sea.)
top-margin annotation Are many of th 60 Eurpean species Annuals
t01 - underlined in reddish-brown crayon

line 8 at "etc" annotation — Therefore th affinity is not closest by now coldest regions.— yet affinity by montain plants.
lines 10—2 annotation p. XII. Flora Antarctica there is said to be Arctic forms in Auckland & Campbell Isds.

lines 7—6 underline "decided ... species"
lines 6—5 underline "genera ... also"
lines 3—2 underline "240 ... countries"

lines 1—2 score
top-marginline 4 annotation The making of species & conditions renders this doubtful.— ‹Galapagos satellite, thrugh›

line 8 annotation & Casuarina
lines 9—11 score
lines 9—14 annotation very wonderful; but yet we know not means of transport viz duration of vitality. anyhow not continuous land.—

line 12 at "Clianthus" annotation vertically crossed a Legum, & most rare Family in N. Zealand.
lines 12—13 underline "one ... Island"
line 13 annotation Has Norfolk Isd. mny Leguminosae in common with Australia

line 14 underline "rarity ... Callitris"

line 20 underline "admirably ... transport"
lines 19—23 annotation ⸮ generally killed by sea-water; yet some Float & Mimosa sensitiva survived 50 days.
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lines 22—24 double score
line 23 underline "land ... between"
lines 22—27 annotation ie in negative point of view, which wd. be vry strng if we knew means of transport.—
lines 22—26 annotation Xt01 R. Brown has said some survived.    Gulf-Seas
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon

line 27 underline "Edwardsia"
line 28 underline "the ... Carmichaelia"
line 29 underline "feebly ... plants"

line 14 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 13 underline "89"
line 13 underline "some"
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ (26 confined t Southn temperat zone)
line 13 underline "Myosurus aristatus"
line 12 annotation 7

line 8 crossing-out "former"
line 8 annotation N. Zealand
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lines 8—6 score
line 8 underline "representative"
lines 7—6 underline "is ... shown"
line 6 underline "Fuchsia ... Calceolaria"
lines 5—4 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X

line 1 underline "76"

lines 1—2 double score
lines 1—4 annotation (Q) (v. p. xxx (Q))
line 1 at "17" annotation yet only 12 species not fd in Australia (I shd. think frm «N.Z» going further south)
line 1 at "found" annotation ‹either› either
line 1 at "Australia" annotation ‹&›
line 1 crossing-out "elsewhere"
line 1 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 2 crossing-out "latter"
line 2 annotation 17
line 3 at "form" annotation sub-group

line 4 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 7 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
lines 7—9 underline "fully ... mountainous"
line 9 at "European" annotation (ie 29)

lines 14—15 underline "Many ... numbers"
lines 17—24 annotation 17 [+] 16 [+] 5 compos. [+] 16 [=] 64
lines 19—20 underline "16 ... were"
lines 23—25 multiple score
lines 23—24 underline "The ... so"
line 23 at "five" annotation (X)t01 which are th 5 ? X Sonchos Pieris Taraxicum Cotula
line 24 at "ones" annotation in N. Zealand??
t01 - `(X)' in reddish-brown crayon

lines 14—9 score

lines 8—4 score
line 4 underline "Carex ... natans"
line 4 at "Pyrenaica" annotation ⧟ Have these become «since» extinct in Australia or have they arrived by other route: Australia has many European plants not fd in New Zealand.

lines 1—5 score
line 1 underline "European ... Australian"
lines 1—2 annotation absent in N. Zealand

lines 7—14 double score
lines 7—8 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
lines 7—8 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
line 10 underline "Those ... Europe"
line 10 annotation — come frm North.
lines 13—15 annotation XXt01 either frm common source of old Antarctic land
lines 4—3 double score
lines 4—3 annotation in reddish-brown crayon X
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ & we have seen New Zealand contains some «17» not in Australia
t01 - `XX' in reddish-brown crayon

lines 15—16 score
lines 17—19 score
line 17 at "those" annotation species

line 20 at "these" annotation antarctic
lines 20—24 annotation but not genera fd. exclusively in South
line 20 at "50" annotation genera
line 22 underline "Drosera"
lines 22—24 annotation such genera may be reprentativ, from alteration in North.

lines 8—5 score
lines 8—7 annotation Definition
from Page001r annotation p XXXIII Note Definition of “Antarctic”. I have I think been misled, & often in doubt by not knowing this definition earlier

top-margin annotation Xt01 Would you mark genera fd only S. of S. Tropics with S.
        ----    only N. of Tropics with N. Excepting mntains within Tropics
     Would you mark th Genera not fd. North of ‹Equator›t02 «S. Tropics»t03 ?
     wd it not have made it much more interestng if th identical specis had been put in .
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon
t02 - underlining dashed
t03 - `Would you mark th ... Tropics' horizontally crossed

lines 2—3 underline "including ... Island"

whole-margin annotation [genera marked (by Hooker?)] S

whole-margin annotation [genera marked (by Hooker?)] N

whole-margin annotation [genera marked] not alpine

whole-margin annotation [genera marked] alpine

whole-margin annotation [genera marked in reddish-brown crayon]

whole-margin annotation [some entries are numbered, yielding the calculation] 3 N. [+] 10 mundane or doubtf [+] 13 S. [=] 26
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whole-margin annotation [entries with other remarks]
t—bottom-margin at "Discaria australis" annotation Galapagos Isd !
t—bottom-margin at "Acaena sanguisorbae" annotation var on mntans
t—bottom-margin at "Pozoa trifoliata" annotation Hills
t—bottom-margin at "Donatia novae-zelandiae" annotation vry strng case (p 80) only one other species known.
t—bottom-margin at "Leptinella dioica" annotation —(This vry strng Antartic genus (p 128 F.N.) with species on all th S. lands includng Tasmania)
t—bottom-margin at "Forstera clavigera" annotation —(p. 154. N.Z. vry remarkalbe alpine plant of N.Z. Tasmania, & Fuegia, nearly allied to extensive Australian genus of Stylidium.)
t—bottom-margin at "Drimys winteri" annotation —Borneo
t—bottom-margin at "Eucryphia cordifolia" annotation Steudel    Xt01 not Auklan Genus
t—bottom-margin at "Colobanthus crassifolius" annotation X — Amsterdamt02 C. Kergulienis ‹St Paul›t03    C. subulatus
t—bottom-margin at "Acaena laevigata" annotation Xt04 Sandwich I «A. affinis» t05 Kerguelen L: Tristan dAcunha
t—bottom-margin at "Gunnera magellanica" annotation —Tahiti, Cape
t—bottom-margin at "Lagenophora commersonii" annotation —Lagenophora , «magellanica»t06 ‹Kegulen L›t07 X & Tristan d'Acnha.t08
t—bottom-margin at "Leptinella scariosa" annotation L. plumosa , Kerguelen & Auklan Is
t01 - `X' in reddish-brown crayon
t02 - `X — Amsterdam' in brown ink
t03 - deleted in brown ink
t04 - `X' in brown ink
t05 - `« A. affinis» ' in brown ink
t06 - `magellanica' in brown ink
t07 - deleted in brown ink
t08 - `X & ... d'Acnha.' in brown ink

whole-margin annotation [genera marked (by Hooker?)]

whole-margin annotation [genera marked (by Hooker?)] N

whole-margin annotation [genera marked] not alpine

whole-margin annotation [genera marked] alpine

whole-margin annotation [genera marked in reddish-brown crayon]

whole-margin annotation [some entries are numbered, yielding the calculation] 4 North [+] 8 Mndan or doutful [+] 12 Sou [=] 24
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