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Example: Charles Darwin, Carl Linnaeus
Example: Birds, Classification, Mammals
Contributed by Cambridge University Library
show legend key
deleted pinholes visible line connects passages
« » inserted count up from last line ÷* long division
Annotation Not Available

lines 1—9 score
lines 1—9 annotation does not always quote his authorities

lines 8—15 annotation Head most ‹important› «sure» race-character amongst intellectual animals /

lines 3—6 score
top-marginline 14 annotation general forms of heads of domestic races especially differ from each other, even in horses, & even in cows

lines 14—17 score
lines 23—24 score
lines 13—26 annotation Father gives heads, & mother hinder parts is general rule / Some exceptions do not destroy the rule ! /
from End Slip annotation 16 . Rule of ant. part taking after father (N.Q)

line 5 underline "Daubenton"
line 1 at "Landschaf" annotation ⧟ Sheep crossed with Merino ram ,head & fine wool on anterior part of body take after father.    — [continued on page 17] cases given in p. 18. & in p. 19 in Birds — anything can be proved !

whole-margin annotation His laws hold to hybrids as well as mongrels —
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lines 7—8 score
line 13 score
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top-margin annotation Hofacker gives many instance of change in colour in foals, as thy grw
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line 2 underline "türkischen"
lines 7—8 underline "Junge ... ähnlich"
lines 10—14 score
lines 11—12 underline "Folge ... aus"
lines 15—16 underline "Kopfes ... von"
whole-margin annotation Muscovy ? ‹duck› drake crossed with common duck . follow sam laws— & crossed geese
     & crossed pheasant

lines 1—7 annotation foals from old stallions have oldv looking heads!! / Bosh. not in men \u— /
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[continues overleaf] 11—19 score in pale pencil
line 10 underline "Im ... Bande"
line 11 underline "Maulthier"
line 13 underline "Maulesel"
lines 5—4 score in pale pencil
line 5 underline in pale pencil "Alle ... haben"
line 4 underline in pale pencil "Mutter ... dem"

[continuation] 1—2 score
line 3 underline "Kopfes ... Glieder"

lines 10—9 underline "dass ... Regel"

lines 2—8 annotation size of head varies much in races compared with size of body

lines 9—19 annotation Eyes & ears vary much in races of cows & horses

lines 8—10 annotation Horns vary in individuals of same race

lines 17—24 double score
lines 16—25 annotation (Quoted) more curled the wool, the more the horns ! /
bottom-margin annotation introduce in relation to teeth & hairs

lines 8—12 annotation The hair on ‹body› «head» often characteristic
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lines 15—19 annotation / one race of sheep‹les› with wool-less head another with head covered with wool
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lines 1—2 annotation ‹Can› X
top-margin annotation X Can convert one race into another most preferably by crossing by the male

top-margin annotation N B . These enumerations of differencs merey show that all parts differ —

lines 1—2 )

top-margin annotation Fig. wrong

lines 4—1 score
line 7bottom-margin annotation No authority for sheep in S. Sea loosing wool

lines 8—12 annotation Cabbages change forms

lines 2—13 score
line 8 underline "Blumenkohl"
line 8 annotation Cauliflower
top-margin annotation «White» Cabbage seed planted in Naples gave Black-khol but generally cauliflower ? ?

[continues overleaf] 15—22 score
line 16 underline "mir"
line 20 annotation in pale pencil X a
lines 8—1 score
bottom-margin annotation X (a) Says from own observation clearly made out that th naked huskless «barley» especially in wet year of 1823, always degenerate into common .—

[continuation] 1—13 score in pale pencil
line 5 annotation in pale pencil X a

bottom-margin annotation || One ought not to infer that climate caus thse variations , but only that thy cease being persistent under new climates

lines 12—11 (
lines 12—11 annotation

lines 13—8 score in pale pencil
lines 13—5 annotation Says cattle taken to E. Indies decrese in size in few generations

line 4 score [`bookmark']

lines 5—1 score
line 5 underline "brasilianischen"
lines 6—2 annotation Brazilian (Rio Plata proverbially best

line 16 score [`bookmark']

lines 8—4 score
lines 8—1 annotation Portuguese cows transpor to Brazil give little milk

lines 12—26 score
lines 12—21 annotation quantity & character of milk varies in diff: countris

lines 2—1 score
line 3bottom-margin annotation milk varies in different years
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line 15 score [`bookmark']

lines 16—22 annotation candle manufacturers prefer Russian tallow
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top-margin annotation X he attributes this to effects of climate but Youatt shows it is in breed & can be got by selection —

lines 3—9 annotation Much more tallow in Holland races, than in Tyrolese X

line 13 score [`bookmark' ]

lines 3—2 underline "dass ... hat"
line 3bottom-margin annotation of Men, what wd. Malthus say ?

bottom-margin annotation Remarks that true sheep have drawn back neck like all Alpine animals, wh is quite lost in lowland sheep .— Mem Leicester Sheep —
from End Slip annotation in pale pencil 67 draw back neck in alpin sheep like Alpin hinds

line 3 score [`bookmark']

lines 3—14 score
lines 3—18 annotation says all animals living in mountains as sheep, goats & pigs are less fruitful than in low countries /

lines 14—15 underline "Consuetudo ... natura"
lines 14—15 annotation X

lines 7—1 score
bottom-margin annotation instinct of period of propagation has varied in all ruminants

lines 15—6 score
lines 7—4 score
line 15bottom-margin annotation says cows frm long generations-habit, do not care for their calves being taken away directly
     here. have lost maternal instinct /

from End Slip annotation 82    On weakening ■of cows maternal instincts (Q)
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lines 1—7 score
lines 1—7 annotation says he has observed great differs in cows himself /
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lines 19—20 underline "während ... duldet"
lines 9—27 annotation The merinos will let about any strange lamb suck them, because Spaniards kill weak lambs & put strong one to them; hence individual maternal instinct is destroyed. /

lines 13—27 annotation says the acquired instincts of dogs are easily lost, so are natural ones, as burrowing & wildness in rabbits
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lines 13—10 )
lines 11—7 annotation (Q)
line 4 underline "warum ... ruhmt"
line 4 at "ruhmt" annotation famed
lines 14—4 annotation it is well known, in districts where oxen are used for draft, thy are easier broken in —
bottom-margin annotation good case of compulsory instinct. —
from End Slip annotation 85    in districts where cattle worked , it is well known young are more easily broken in — ( so in Pampas Horses) Compulsory instinct.

line 1 underline "Kartoffeln"
bottom-margin annotation many races of fruit & Potatoes have risen from crossing !

lines 11—16 score
lines 11—18 annotation Merinos originally a crossed breed.

lines 10—13 score
line 13 underline "nur ... beiträgt"
lines 10—18 annotation Father chief, especially in mind /

line 8 underline "neue Mittelraçe"
line 7 underline "Typus ... Vaters"

lines 1—6 score
lines 1—6 annotation Father chief ??

lines 10—7 score
line 10bottom-margin annotation Hair ,horns &c are most easily altered by crossing — other parts more difficulty

lines 5—13 annotation curly hair frm alpine bulls transmitted to first cross

lines 15—4 score
line 1 score
line 15bottom-margin annotation so with Merino rams, even in parts of body which have no hair in the mother: in one case length of tail not increased, but covered with wool
from End Slip annotation 104 — Horns always after Merino Ram; one cross from Horned Bull gave horns to Hornless Herds ,(because a part previously lost, so tendng to return.—

lines 5—10 score
lines 5—10 annotation always has horn of Merino Ram /
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lines 11—18 score
lines 14—21 annotation A — ( I think this is because lost part; or rudmntry
bottom-margin annotation (A) In herd of «invariably» hornless cattle for many generations , one year of war the hornless bulls were lost & horned ones were used, & first year 9 out of 10 calves had horns.

lines 10—2 score
lines 10—2 annotation Hoof takes after father in Oxen & Horse

lines 15—16 underline "Wir ... verändert"

lines 3—7 score
line 6 underline in brown ink "friessischen Ochsen"
lines 12—16 score
lines 3—16 annotation alterations slower according as sexes of differnt breeds are crossed (Q)t01
from End Slip annotation 107. Alteration quicker or slower according as we take male or femle of A & crss it with B. (Q)
t01 - `(Q)' in brown ink

lines 2—7 score
line 4 underline "Kunstfertigkeiten"
line 5 underline "Gedächtnis"
top-margin annotation Memory
lines 5—6 underline "Raphael's ... Dante's"

line 11 double score [`bookmark']

lines 3—1 underline "In ... Vollblutpferd"
line 11bottom-margin annotation as many years as teeth require, so many generations for new race! !
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line 14 underline "dem 6ten"
line 13 underline "oft"
line 13 annotation variation
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[continues overleaf] 4—6 annotation X
top-margin annotation in crossing head after father & in succeeding generations the change travels down the Back!

[continuation] 1—8 score
lines 4—5 annotation ← instance of above !

lines 14—11 score
lines 15—14 annotation A
bottom-margin annotation A. Has already shown that attention through father is so much quicker, as this does not depart «much» from original race

lines 1—20 score in pale pencil
lines 9—10 annotation A
top-marginline 8 annotation A    says to produce new race , (viz to make a Merino breed come out of country sheep) it is vry disadvantageous to commence crossing vry unlike breeds, better begin with a half-bred & so go on step by step.

line 5 underline "gemeine Veredlung"
lines 5—2 annotation selection with crossing /
line 1 underline ""individuelle Veredlung"
bottom-margin annotation what we call selection without crossing

lines 6—10 score
lines 6—13 annotation good milking tendency goes by father: curious,—
lines 18—21 score
line 19 annotation ⧟ instance
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lines 16—5 score
line 4 underline "Ductilität"
lines 17—2 annotation Quote English Selection best means, but requires great knowledge & a fixed forelook on stock of cattle
from End Slip annotation in pale pencil 120 Selection
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lines 10—14 score
bottom-margin annotation says particularly necessary to know influenc of Father & Mother in this kind of selection — this I doubt