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top-margin annotation Ch. Darwin
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lines 19—21 score
lines 24—26 score
lines 13—30 annotation period shorter in th early maturd races. /
     / gestation different in sheep & swine.—
     / In early culture races of swine, th young less matured in skull, ‹perhaps from crossing with Indian›.

from End Slip 1 annotation in brown ink p. 2. «X»t01 Gestation earlier in Culture-races & features less matured.
t01 - `X' in reddish-orange crayon


line 16 score [`bookmark']

line 4 score [`bookmark']


lines 6—2 score
line 14bottom-margin annotation change of skull from growth to adult comes from elongation of front part of skull & separation of the 2 laminae
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lines 13—9 score in pale pencil
lines 15—6 annotation teeth developed earlier in well-fed. culture-races than in common pigs.
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown ink 20— teeth developed in well-fed races


lines 1—2 score
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lines 20—23 score
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lines 6—8 score in pale pencil
lines 6—9 annotation in pale pencil — in tame i.e. face shortened.
lines 2—1 score
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 63. S. scrofa — tamed races — ‹face shortened› greter height of head in relation to length — in all dimesions broader — «p. 66» all differences variable. .68.— «in tamed» intermediate «in character» betwen yong & old wild Explains changed shape by less use of routing in grnd.


lines 4—1 score
line 5bottom-margin annotation differences in these swine from wild are variable.
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 63. S. scrofa — tamed races — ‹face shortened› greter height of head in relation to length — in all dimesions broader — «p. 66» all differences variable. .68.— «in tamed» intermediate «in character» betwen yong & old wild Explains changed shape by less use of routing in grnd.


lines 20—15 [
lines 25—15 annotation common swine's skull intermediate between that of young & old wild swine
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line 12 score
line 15bottom-margin annotation Explains differences by primarily wild swine «wholly» living by rooting & using gretly th muscles attached to back of head — entailing other differences in skull by action during youth — lays gret stress on this view.—
     Mem. he does not here refer to Culture-races.—

from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 63. S. scrofa — tamed races — ‹face shortened› greter height of head in relation to length — in all dimesions broader — «p. 66» all differences variable. .68.— «in tamed» intermediate «in character» betwen yong & old wild Explains changed shape by less use of routing in grnd.


lines 13—21 annotation ‹some› «a» constant difference in «flexure of row of» teeth in common & Indian Swine or their crosses.—
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 71.    The position of rows of teeth a constant character .


line 12 underline "kürzen ... des"
lines 17—10 score in pale pencil
lines 16—13 annotation individual variability
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 72.    Much individual variability.
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lines 11—12 score
line 12 underline "wesentliche Differenz"
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lines 10—13 score
lines 11—12 underline "den ... ausgebildet"
lines 7—17 annotation In these swine beginning of changes, which are variable, in teeth which are greater in culture-races
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 74. «X»t01 In these swine beginning of changes more plainly seen in culture-races —
t01 - `X' in reddish-orange crayon
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lines 17—20 score
lines 17—20 annotation wild swine with simple teeth
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lines 16—13 double score
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lines 5—3 score
lines 4—3 underline "Russland ... Holland"
lines 4—2 annotation such swine in these countries
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown ink vertically crossedin pencil vertically crossedin pencil 75 These swine in Russia & all over N. & central Europe.


lines 6—7 underline "Ohrlänge ... Rippen"
lines 4—12 annotation Of these swine «with sam skull» these parts differ. & can be selected
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 76. Difference in length of Ears — hair-colour, length of limbs & shape of body all different.
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line 18 underline "lang ... kurzohrige"
line 16 underline "osteologisch ... begründet"
lines 16—13 score
lines 18—8 annotation He formerly placed some of the short-eared races in this class, which have been crossed with Indian.
from End Slip 1 annotation in brown inkvertically crossedin pencil 76. Difference in length of Ears — hair-colour, length of limbs & shape of body all different.


line 9 underline "indischen Hausschwein"
lines 12—11 score
line 12 underline "in ... Wildschwein"

lines 8—3 score
lines 10—4 annotation almost all «cultivated» swine crossed with Indian
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 77 Almost all now crossed with Indian; not known wild. comes from China

line 1 underline "nur eine Culturrasse"
line 1 annotation not known wild
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lines 14—19 score
line 14 underline "Cochon de Siam"
line 15 underline "Abbildung ... Schweineschädels"

line 5 underline "zwei"
lines 9—5 annotation Few skulls exist only 2.
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lines 1—3 score
line 2 underline "chinesischen Hafenstädte"
lines 5—1 score
line 4 underline "China 15 Rippen"
line 4u "nur 14"


lines 8—7 score
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 83 Shortness of lachrymals most remarkable character
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lines 10—15 score
lines 25—27 score
lines 11—21 annotation shape of palate or space between teeth different in Indian & wild
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 86 And the shape of the palate & position of row of teeth
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lines 3—4 score
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line 13 underline "bedeutende Verschiedenheiten"
lines 13—15 annotation considerable slight differences in teeth
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 89 position of last upper molar— 89 Considerable «X»t01 slight differences in teeth — 90 width of fore part of palate does not depend solely on divergence of pre-molars
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon
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lines 6—9 score
lines 6—7 underline "Richtung der Zahnreihen"
lines 8—9 underline "besonders ... prämol"
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lines 12—16 score
lines 11—18 annotation width of fore parts of palate does not depend solely on divergence of premolars
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lines 12—11 score
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line 8 underline "ist ... Verhältniss"
line 6 underline "Hausschwein sind"
line 5 underline "in ... geringerm"
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 91 «X»t01 skull broader in relation to length than in common swine
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon


lines 8—10 annotation Breadth may have been graduated.
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line 14 score
line 14 underline "Kürze ... Breite"
line 15 underline "Kürze ... Thränenbeins"
line 17 underline "eine selbstständige"
lines 12—17 annotation no trace of these in common swine.—
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[continues overleaf] 1 underline "eine ... Schweine"
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[continuation] 1 underline "dass ... im"
line 3 score
line 3 underline "Breite ... Gaumens"
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lines 5—8 score
lines 8—11 score
lines 4—16 annotation concludes that Indian race descended from distinct wild species & this wd be admitted by Zoolog. if no reference made to sterility & domestication
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 94 Indian swine a distinct species if no reference made to domestication.
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line 10 score
lines 11—17 annotation The above Indian pigs not more affected by culture than common swine before described.— not highly cultured race
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 95 the above Indian pigs not more affected by culture than common swine

lines 8—7 underline "und ... Jugend"
line 6 underline "einen ... aller"
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lines 15—18 annotation Berkshire not vry high culture race. skull & descended from Indian.—
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's handin brown ink 99 Berkshire not high culture race & descended from Indian, a born dispeptic individual had skull much modified & legs elongated, & period of appearance of the teeth & crowns of molar «X»t01 teeth affected.
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon

lines 16—13 annotation A Dyspeptic individual from youth
lines 10—9 underline "langen ... hochbeinig"
lines 10—4 annotation skull thus modified by want of food — Can this be Revrsion?


lines 4—1 score
lines 4—3 underline "Kopf ... geworden"
line 2 underline "ernährten ... geworden"
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lines 7—13 unmarked
lines 20—22 score in pale pencil
lines 23—29 unmarked
lines 7—24 annotation Period of teeth appearance «& structure» affected in this dyspeptic pig.


lines 4—7 score
lines 4—8 annotation division of crown of molar teeth affected.
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 103 «X»t01 in high culture races the incisors stand much higher than back teeth; the canines of upper jaw stand before the canines of under jaw & this is a most remarkable anomaly.
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon
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lines 10—12 score
lines 11—12 underline "reichliche ... erzeugt"
from End Slip 1 annotation not in Darwin's handin brown ink 103 rich food during youth gives short & broad head.
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lines 16—20 annotation & Do not use their muzzles because ringed

line 6 underline "Die ... Backzahnreihe"
lines 2—1 double score
line 1 crossing-out "Unter"
bottom-margin annotation ‹over› upper
line 1 underline "vor"
line 1 crossing-out "Ober"
bottom-margin annotation Unter lowert01
bottom-margin annotation see p. 130
t01 - `lower' in pale pencil
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lines 5—6 double score
lines 6—15 annotation → Proofs
lines 9—12 score
line 9 underline "langohrige ... Rücken"
line 10 underline "diese ... wie"
lines 15—19 score
lines 20—22 double score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's handin brown ink p. 104 «X»t01 The culture, shape of skull does not depend upon race
     most different races have it, yet most seem crossed with the Indian.
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon

lines 8—3 score
lines 8—5 annotation Nata Ox


lines 1—8 score
lines 1—8 annotation Offspring vary in shortness of head accordng to [?]keep

lines 17—18 underline "Nach ... vorhanden"
line 19 underline "aber ... Individuen"
lines 16—18 annotation says not hereditary !!!
lines 19—21 score in pale pencil
lines 20—24 annotation in pale pencil happn with our cattle & sheep
line 23 underline "Egelkrankheit"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's handin brown ink p. 105 «X»t01 about bull-dogs & Nata cattle
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon

lines 14—12 score
lines 14—12 annotation Bull-dog analogy
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's handin brown ink p. 105 «X»t01 about bull-dogs & Nata cattle
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon

lines 11—5 score
lines 11—3 annotation argues this does not contradict his explanation of want use of Snout
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lines 1—2 score
lines 1—4 score
lines 1—6 annotation common swine like wild-Boars have not this short head
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 106 but common swine have not the short culture-head

lines 13—16 score
lines 19—21 score
lines 19—21 underline "ein ... vorhanden"
lines 12—18 annotation probably might be gained , by progeny of commn wild Boar.


lines 13—15 score
line 13 at "Form" annotation i.e. short-head


lines 3—5 score
line 3 underline "Stirnhöhlen"
line 4 at "Schwein" annotation in cultur pigs
line 4 underline "Entwicklung ... aber"
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lines 4—7 annotation Diploe different in wild & cultur-races
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 113 the Diploe different in wild & culture races.
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lines 9—11 score
line 11 annotation p. 103
lines 19—17 score
lines 17—13 score
lines 12—5 score


[continues overleaf] 8—10 score
line 8 underline "grosse ... Rasse"
lines 9—10 underline "nachweislich ... Landschlage"
lines 16—12 score
lines 16—15 underline "Alle ... vorhanden"
lines 10—9 score
lines 7—1 score
line 3 underline "Gehörgänge"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 131 «X»t01 Great Yorkshire race — probably crossed with Indian, has all its characters. wonderful changes incisors do not touch. not monstrosities for all inheritedt02
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon
t02 - underlined in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon


[continuation] 2 underline "Augenhöhle"

lines 15—13 score
lines 15—13 annotation do not touch
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line 4 underline "Diese ... Gebisses"
lines 4—6 score
lines 4—6 annotation all inherited
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line 20 underline "Gelenkfläche"
lines 20—15 score
lines 7—3 unmarked
lines 20—3 annotation articular surface condyles of occiput modified
     →
     ∵ because head not used

from End Note annotation in blue crayon p 133 use
     Use
(Q))t01

from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 133 «X»t01 articular surfaces of condiles of occiput modified head not much used
t01 - `(Q))' in pencil
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon
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lines 17—20 annotation can assrt Brain vry similar
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 134 case for brain not much changed
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lines 8—12 score
line 9 underline "nur ... dort"
line 14 underline "Steigerung" @14 annotation increase
lines 5—14 annotation All these great changes only a climax of those seen in the races like wild Boars.
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 135 all these great changes only a climax of those seen in wild boar races

lines 10—1 score
lines 8—7 annotation two Races


lines 3—7 double score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 136 all house pigs belong to the above two races


lines 15—12 double score
lines 11—8 score
lines 13—7 annotation argument for Indian Race being parent of Domestication
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 138 «X»t01 1/32 even 1/64 of Indian blood is sufficient plainly to modify the skull
t01 - `X' in Darwin's hand, in reddish-orange crayon

lines 4—1 score
line 5bottom-margin annotation All these differences in pure European & Indian Races
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 138 great differences in the ears &c &c in the 2 great tribes


line 9 underline "Siam"
lines 14—11 annotation Siam & China all with short-Ears

lines 5—3 score
line 4 underline "Rasse ... Pallas"

line 1 score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 139 all Indian Swine introduced into Englandt01 have short ears
t01 - underlined in Darwin's hand, in pencil


lines 5—2 double score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 140 « Xt01    (Qt02t03 Berkshire swine of 1780 is quite different from that of 1810 & since that time 2 quite difft races have borne that name
t01 - `X' in reddish-orange crayon
t02 - `(Q)' in pencil
t03 - `X    (Q)' in Darwin's hand


lines 14—19 score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil | 141 All the «new» English breeds seem to have Indian blood

lines 10—7 score
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lines 11—16 score
line 11 underline "aus Herculaneum"
lines 10—13 annotation Neapolitan Breed. !
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 142 Sculptures in Herculaneum shew no doubt that Neapolitan breed then existed. this breed & Andalusian & Rutimeyer's grau bundtner race are all like Roman therefore like the Indians


lines 2—5 score
line 4 underline "Andalusien"
line 11 underline "Graubündtner"
line 12 underline "Ueberraschung"
line 12 annotation surprise
lines 6—9 annotation All these like Indian

lines 16—15 underline "dass ... steht"


lines 18—20 score
line 19 underline "romanische Schwein"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 144 Roman probably is a cross from the Indian


lines 12—5 score
line 12 at "Ueberzeugung" annotation conviction
lines 11—10 underline "allerdings ... seien"

line 5 underline "wildes"
lines 6—2 annotation is not convinced that turf swine was wild
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 146 is not convinced that the turf-swine was wild, but will not dispute it — 147. gives reasons why with swine difficult to tell —


lines 12—16 score
lines 12—14 annotation wild swine in fertile plain joints different.
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line 18 score [`bookmark']

lines 19—14 score
lines 19—14 annotation turn out tame when stock of wild reduced


lines 7—14 score
lines 9—14 annotation In India wild swine cross much with tame
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 148 in India wild cross with tame

lines 19—14 score
lines 20—11 annotation Rutimeyer differnc between wild & tame bones generlly correct, but must be received with caution with pigs

lines 13—11 underline "Reichlichere ... bedingt"
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lines 1—3 underline "Verwandtschaft ... keinem"
line 1 at "Formen" annotation Turf & Indian
lines 5—6 underline "Die ... Gaumens"
lines 10—12 score
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 149 almost certain that turf & Indian closely allied

line 15 annotation not certain
lines 16—18 underline "sie ... Prämolaren"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 149 almost certain that turf & Indian closely allied

line 16 underline "des indischen"
line 16 annotation only frm Pallas
lines 13—12 underline "alle ... Japan"
lines 8—6 score
lines 8—7 underline "ist ... Gewissheit"
lines 7—6 annotation not certain frm E. India


line 7 annotation curly Hair
line 12 underline "südöstlichen Europa"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 150 curly swine with curly wool in South East Europe from lower Hungary — closely allied to Indian

lines 16—13 score
line 14 underline "sogenannten ... Schwein"
line 12 underline "aus Ungarn"
line 4 underline "Niederungarn"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 150 curly swine with curly wool in South East Europe from lower Hungary — closely allied to Indian


lines 1—3 score


lines 8—10 score
lines 8—10 annotation like Indian


lines 15—13 score
lines 8—7 underline "Der ... bekannt"
from End Slip 2, Side 2 annotation not in Darwin's hand, in brown ink, vertically crossed in Darwin's hand in pencil 153 Japan swine in skull is near to Indian. 157 certainly stands near to short-eared Chinese race.


lines 1—8 annotation in pale pencil Gray makes it a distinct genus

lines 14—12 score
lines 14—13 underline "das ... nahestehend"

lines 5—4 score
line 1 underline "weil"
line 1 score
line 1 an