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Example: Charles Darwin, Carl Linnaeus
Example: Birds, Classification, Mammals
Contributed by Cambridge University Library
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top-margin annotation C. Darwin Jan 1842


line 3 score


line 15 underline "Zaunkönige verständlich"
lines 10—17 annotation nott01 aboriginal! / [damaged: cut]urkey & [damaged: cut]en understand others [damaged: cut] of fear
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 2 Birds understand each others cries (N.Q)t02
t01 - `not' in pencil
t02 - `(N.Q)' in dark pencil


lines 5—6 annotation X
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line 12 underline "Locktöne"
lines 12—10 annotation in pale pencil understood by many species


lines 13—15 unmarked
lines 10—17 annotation from happiness or love
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 4. Singing male attribute to charm females
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lines 12—11 underline "Denn ... Weibchen"
lines 15—11 score
lines 15—11 annotation few ♀s sing in widowhood

lines 6—4 score
lines 6—4 underline "um ... den"
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lines 15—10 score
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ different species learn with different facilities →t01
t01 - `→' in pencil


lines 13—12 underline "weil ... Männchen"
lines 13—10 annotation larynx not so strong in female

lines 5—3 underline "dass ... wird"
line 5 at "Anstrengung" annotation labour
lines 5—1 score
line 3 underline "Gesang ... wird"
bottom-margin annotation improved by practice
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 7 Voice of Birds improves by practice (Q)t01
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
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lines 8—3 double score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 20 Remarks on rarity of Cage Birds breeding, except such as Canary used to confinmt


top-margin annotation in dark pencil V. Blaines Encyclop of Sport.(Athe) ,whether Falcons were bread [ie `bred'] or continually fresh caught, — good case of difficulty of breeding, after thousands of attempts on Europaean bird.

lines 3—22 annotation { Elephants occasionally breeding may be compared to the mule occas. doing so }
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line 6


line 11
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line 15
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lines 5—3 score
lines 5—4 underline "Bei ... unbefruchtet"
line 10 annotation Psittacus macao
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 83 Psittacus large eggs but unfertilised    105 exception
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line 1


lines 2—4 double score
line 4 underline "aufgezogene"
line 5 underline "nur ... zähmen"
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line 11 underline "pfeifen"
line 11 annotation X


lines 16—17 score
lines 16—17 underline "ist ... haben"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 83 Psittacus large eggs but unfertilised    105 exception

lines 17—20 score
lines 18—19 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation it is known how very long pigeons live in confinement — ∴ not diseased.
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lines 2—1 score
from End Note 2 annotation 107. Memory .
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation «xx» ‹106 Pi›


lines 15—20 score
from End Note 2 annotation 108. var
     112 do


lines 1—4 score in dark pencil
from End Note 2 annotation 108. var
     112 do

lines 13—3 score
from End Note 2 annotation 108. var
     112 do


lines 15—18 score
from End Note 2 annotation 114 range


lines 10—3 score
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lines 11—20 score

line 14 at "Grillen" annotation [?]cricket

line 13 score
line 13 underline "wie ... Vögeln"

lines 9—8 score
line 8 underline "Einem ... gesehen"


lines 4—3 score
lines 4—3 underline "bringen ... auf"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 139 Bullfinch occasionally breedng
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 139 Canary ♂ Bullfinch ♀ (Canay ♀ Greenfinch ♂ p.145)


lines 10—5 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 142 «(Qt01 Different facilities t02 in learning in Bullfinches
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
t02 - underlined in dark pencil
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line 4 score
line 4 underline "Alter der"
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lines 2—6 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 139 Canary ♂ Bullfinch ♀ (Canay ♀ Greenfinch ♂ p.145)


lines 13—18 score
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lines 4—5 score


lines 3—1 score
lines 3—1 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation X I think I have overlooked some analogous facts
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 185 Male losing sexual character in confinement — 215 Linnet do.    219. do.
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[continues overleaf] 2 score
line 2 underline "Spielarten"
from End Note 2 annotation 192 .var


[continuation] 1—2 score


lines 10—12 score
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lines 10—12 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 205 «Habit» t01 Chaffinch has «(Qt02 different song in different places —
t01 - `« Habit' in dark pencil
t02 - `(Q)' in dark pencil


lines 9—8 underline "ein ... gerathen"
lines 9—8 annotation Tree Sparr
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 210 Can cross House & Tree Sparrow, but not reciprocal (224 on canaries do) «(Qt01
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
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line 3 underline "Fringilla montana"


lines 9—11 score
lines 8—12 annotation still rarer in England
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 212    on comparative rarity of House & Tree Sparrow


lines 9—11 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 185 Male losing sexual character in confinement — 215 Linnet do.    219. do.
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lines 18—21 score
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lines 17—18 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 185 Male losing sexual character in confinement — 215 Linnet do.    219. do.


lines 6—4 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 221 vars of Goldfinch ,222


lines 18—14 score

lines 11—8 score
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 221 vars of Goldfinch ,222

line 3 underline "kohlschwarz"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 221 vars of Goldfinch ,222


lines 9—5 score
line 6 underline "wenn ... mit"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 210 Can cross House & Tree Sparrow, but not reciprocal (224 on canaries do) «(Qt01
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
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lines 14—16 score
line 15 underline "Deutschland ... gemein"


lines 14—19 score
line 15 underline "die ... gleichen"
line 18 underline "sogenannten grünen"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 230 Easier to pair Siskin with Canary of same colour


lines 19—18 score
lines 19—18 underline "und ... Lebensart"

line 8 underline "ohne ... vermehrten"

lines 4—3 score
line 3 underline "erzogen. Anfänglich"

line 1 underline "Citronenfinken"
line 1 underline "Girlitzen"
bottom-margin annotation Fringilla citrinella    ― serinus    ― cannibin. & linota


lines 1—4 score
line 2 underline "Grau ... Schwärzlich"

lines 6—10 score
line 8 underline "gewöhnlichsten"

lines 11—8 double score
bottom-margin annotation in pale pencil ⧟ origin
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 237.    Origin of Canaries & Hybrids of (p 247) «(Q)» Hybrids)

line 11 at "Grünling"
bottom-margin annotation Loxia chloris

line 11 at "Zeisig"
bottom-margin annotation Fringilla spinus

lines 3—1 score


lines 11—12 underline "Ich ... Stieglitzbastard"
line 12 at "Stieglitz" annotation Goldfinch

lines 14—15 score
line 15 underline "oft ausserordentlich"

lines 8—5 score
line 5 underline "sehr einfaches"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 238 Thinks want of exercise gret cause of variation.—


lines 1—2 score
line 2 underline "Farbe ... Gestalt"
lines 1—2 annotation in brown ink Q
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 239    Hybrid of Canary & F. species alwys takes after latter in colour & shape (Q)t01
t01 - `(Q)' in pale brown ink


lines 6—20 score
line 20 underline "oder ... spät"
lines 9—11 annotation in brown ink Q
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 242    good Breeders rare amongst Canaries
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bottom-margin apparently unintentional mark


lines 1—2 double score
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lines 6—8 score
line 8 underline "alle ... möchten"


top-margin annotation X F. linaria

lines 5—8 score
lines 6—7 underline "und ... Bastarde"
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lines 9—18 score in pale pencil
line 15 underline in pale pencil "Männchen ... bei"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 247    In Birds reared frm nest, either sex will do to match with Canaries (Q)t01
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil

line 23 at "Finken, Goldammern" annotation Chaffinch    Yellow-hammer
lines 21—17 score
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 247 ∗ Has himself crossed Bull-finch & Canaries (N.Q)t01
t01 - `(N.Q)' in dark pencil

line 16 underline "Gimpel"
line 16 annotation Bullfinch
lines 15—14 underline "Erfahrung ... die"
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line 11 score
line 11 at "Böhmen" annotation Bohemia
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lines 5—4 score


lines 1—2 annotation in pale pencil (Q)
line 3 score
top-margin annotation F. spinus or Siskin
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lines 2—4 double score
line 2 at "Stieglitz"
top-margin annotation Goldfinch

line 3 underline "wieder unter"
line 3 at "Zeisig"
top-margin annotation F. spinus or Siskin

lines 5—7 score
lines 5—7 annotation (Q)
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 248    Certain that Hybrid Canaries & «(Q)» Goldfinches & Siskins will breed inter se [but first «(Qt01 yong are weak]
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil


line 21 underline "Das ... Stube"
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line 16 double score
line 16 underline "Verschiedenheit ... Temperamente"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation «p» 251 «(Qt01 Different characters in Canaries «(as in man)»t02
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
t02 - `(as in man)' in pencil

line 5 score


lines 2—3 at "Baumlerche" annotation Alauda arborea
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line 8 underline "Adern ... zersprengen"
line 9 underline "herabfallen ... sind"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation    252 Canaries sing till they kill themselves.
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lines 20—21 score
lines 20—21 underline "der ... fortpflanzt"
lines 15—21 annotation related song
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lines 11—12 score
lines 11—12 underline "Sie ... bei"


line 6 score
line 6 underline "das ... geniessen"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 262 Several cases of Birds in dark places losing brilliancy of colour (Ch 7) p. 308 do


lines 12—13 score
lines 12—13 underline "ohne ... legen"
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lines 8—4 score
lines 8—7 underline "denn ... Menschen"
lines 6—5 underline "einige ... aus"
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 265 Larks «(Qt01 sing differently individually
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil


lines 3—1 score
lines 3—2 underline "verschiedene ... Menschen"
bottom-margin annotation corporeal virtue & vice
from End Slip, Side 1 annotation 267 (Q)t01 in Larks «taken wild» t02
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil
t02 - `« taken wild' in dark pencil
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lines 3—5 score
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lines 3—1 score
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line 13 score
line 13 underline "zwölf"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 289 Garrulus lived 12 years


lines 19—22 score

lines 12—9 score

lines 8—6 score
lines 8—6 underline "weissgelbe ... fremde"
lines 8—6 annotation (Q)
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 293 Migratory «(Q for instinctt01 & Home Thrushes can be distinguished — probaly do not cross (see [corrected from illegible word] Brehm)
t01 - `(Q for instinct)' in dark pencil


lines 11—29 annotation The thrush
     Nothing said about breeding in domest.


lines 13—10 score
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lines 2—4 score
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lines 20—21 score
lines 20—21 underline "sind ... Farbe"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 262 Several cases of Birds in dark places losing brilliancy of colour (Ch 7) p. 308 do


bottom-margin apparently unintentional mark


line 8 score
line 8 underline "bis ... Schweden"

lines 3—1 score


lines 6—5 score
lines 6—5 underline "wenn ... leidet"


top-margin annotation The numbers of Nightingales in Europe in summer have no relation to amount of food for them.

line 5 at "ausgerottet" annotation [?]eradicated

lines 7—11 score
top-marginline 18 annotation This helps to show at what period the Sylviadae are destroyed.—
     { think with respect to Malthus.

lines 13—14 unmarked
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 312    Nightingales once exterminated do not reappear (shows less abroad)
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lines 16—10 score
lines 16—10 annotation instincts dormant for one year


lines 2—5 score
lines 3—4 underline "sie ... reisen"


lines 17—13 score
line 13 underline "zuweilen bewerkstelligte"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 318 Nightingale sometimes breed in cage surrounded by green boughs


line 2 underline "fünfzehn"
line 3 underline "bemerkt ... Orte"
lines 6—7 score
lines 6—7 underline "fünf ... ist"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 319 live to 15 years old — even 25 years


lines 15—20 score
line 16 underline "zwar ... Schweden"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 322 Nightingale different «(Qt01 prowess of singers, some are night singers, inherited
t01 - `(Q)' in dark pencil


lines 17—20 score
line 17 underline "Es ... Nachtigallen"

lines 21—13 double score
line 20 underline "weiss aus"

lines 12—11 score


lines 7—14 score
line 12 underline "Diese ... einer"


lines 1—7 score


lines 4—8 score


lines 6—4 score


line 7 score
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lines 7—5 score
line 6 underline "einige ... November"
line 5 underline "Winter ... uns"


lines 12—10 score
line 10 underline "viel matter"


line 14 score
line 14 underline "Dieser ... Jahr"


lines 4—6 score
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lines 16—21 score
line 17 underline "Varietät"
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lines 9—5 score
lines 9—5 annotation appears not uncomm
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lines 9—18 score
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 403 «(N.Qt01 I think mistake C. oenas & livia (No)    But says nothing on fertility of Hybrids
t01 - `(N.Q)' in dark pencil


lines 12—14 score in dark pencil
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lines 8—6 score
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lines 8—9 score
line 8 underline "tritt ... Ringeltauber"
line 9 underline "keine Jungen"
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lines 11—9 score
line 10 underline "Lachtauben"
line 9 annotation Columba risoria
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lines 8—9 underline "die ... Junge"
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line 11 underline in dark pencil "Fliesseier ... keine"
lines 11—13 score
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lines 16—20 score in dark pencil

lines 14—11 score
line 13 underline "stets"
line 12 underline "grösser werden"
lines 11—9 score


lines 2—3 score
line 3 underline "acht Jahre"
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lines 13—15 score

line 7 underline "unsere ... schön"


lines 1—3 score


lines 12—15 score in dark pencil
line 15 underline "Jene ... aus"
from End Slip, Side 2 annotation 418    Case of Quail Breeding


lines 17—19 score
line 18 underline in pale pencil "behauptet"
line 18 annotation in pale pencil asserts


lines 15—14 score
line 14 underline "die ... Jahre"


lines 11—6 score
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lines 13—12 score
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