The George Engelmann Papers

Missouri Botanical Garden Archives
1831-1914 (39 linear feet)


The personal papers of the botanist George Engelmann include almost 5,000 letters from about 550 leading and amateur scientists in the United States and Europe in the middle decades of the 19th century. The collection also includes the various scientific notes and written works composed by Engelmann during his life as a medical doctor living in St. Louis, Missouri.

Biographical Note:

George Engelmann (1809-1884) was a German doctor who immigrated with his family to Belleville, Illinois in the early 1830s. From there he moved to St. Louis and established a medical practice with his fellow expatriate Friedrich Adolph Wislizenus and led the creation of the Western Academy of Natural Sciences and later the Academy of Science of St. Louis. In the 1840s, Engelmann began a life-long correspondence with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray, and the two together arranged for the collection of plants in the Southwest before, during, and following the Mexican-American War through their respective networks of correspondents. Engelmann was also a scientific advisor to Henry Shaw in the early development of the Missouri Botanical Garden. He purchased the Bernhardi herbarium on Shaw’s behalf and the first books for the garden library on a trip to Europe in 1857. In addition to his medical practice, Engelmann was an active botanical researcher with a special focus on Cactaceae, Vitaceae, Juncaceae, and Isoetaceae. Engelmann’s herbarium and papers were given to the Missouri Botanical Garden by his son after his death.

Scope and Content:

The collection is concentrated mainly between the late 1840s and George Engelmann's death in 1884. There are some earlier materials including his dissertation and notes from medical school as well as some early correspondence from his first years in the Midwest. Because the collection was assembled by Engelmann's son, George Julius, there are additional letters and published materials from the late 1880s and early 1890s. Engelmann conducted his correspondence in English, French, and German with enduring contacts in Paris and Berlin as well as throughout the United States. The correspondence relates to botany, botanical surveys, and expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Institutions and other agencies of the U.S. government. The expeditions include the Emory expedition in New Mexico, the Fremont expedition in the Rocky Mountains and California, Hayden expedition on the upper Missouri River and Colorado, and the Nicollet, Powell, Simpson, Wheeler, Whipple, and Wilkes expeditions. Many of the letters include descriptions of local and national politics.

Notes in the notebooks, written on the backs of prescription pads, letters from patients, other discarded notes or any scrap available, do include exact dates, location descriptions and collector’s names. Some are actual field notes. Hundreds of very exact, in some cases beautiful, drawings accompany the notes. Engelmann’s and notably, Arthur Schott and Paulus Roetter’s sketches and hand-colored drawings are represented in great number. These materials are arranged by family, genus and species in Engelmann's own system.


The papers are arranged in three main groups: (1) correspondence (2) botanical notebooks (3) miscellaneous and bound volumes.

Series I Correspondence, 15 cubic feet, 550 correspondents, 4861 letters, 30 additional items
Series II Botanical Notebooks, 10 cubic feet, 30 boxes, 60 notebooks, 13,863 manuscripts
Series III Misc., 4 cubic feet, 10 boxes, 5 volumes, 408 manuscripts, 388 other items, 2 seals.

The hyperlinked finding aid below covers only the Correspondence series. Series II and III may be seen by clicking on this link to see a pdf.

The papers of George Engelmann have been in the possession of the Missouri Botanical Garden since his death in 1884. In 1887, with the financial aid and advice of Henry Shaw, Asa Gray and William Trelease, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, edited and published the collected botanical works of Dr. Engelmann using his notebooks and previously published papers as the basis for the work. In subsequent years the papers were stored and classified in several ways, one being that of interfiling with related botanical material in the main book collection of the Garden library. Some were placed with herbarium specimens. Most of the correspondence was removed from the notebooks in the 1960s and filed alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence which had been retained (whether by accident or design) in the botanical notebooks has been left there since it was felt that this was probably Engelmann’s original arrangement. An index to this correspondence is appended to the inventory.

Within the correspondence, letters are filed chronologically in folders under each correspondent, and those folders are arranged in alphabetical order across twenty seven vertical boxes and four flat oversized boxes. In describing each folder of the correspondence, it was necessary to limit the summary to a list of the major subjects, plant names (genus only), people discussed and collection sites or locales as well as inclusive dates and lists of places of origin of the letters. Places, personal names and plant names are listed in the order of first appearance though any one may appear again later in the series. Information in the letters which is especially important to the historian as well as to the botanist, ecologist or meteorologist is briefly described. An asterisk following a plant name (or person or place) indicates that either exact collection sites, blooming dates, diagrams, extensive descriptions of the plants, species distinctions or other information more than a casual mention of name or site is given.

Arrangement of the notebooks was meticulously done, probably by Engelmann with minor changes made by William Trelease and George Julius Engelmann when working on the publication of the collected works. Each notebook constitutes its own series. During the 1860s when the material was withdrawn from the bound volumes (similar to an album), it was divided into inner folders. This order was maintained except when the arrangement appeared to be arbitrary and divided a single species, e.g., between two folders. In some cases Engelmann studied a family extensively, e. g. Cactaceae. Several notebooks resulted from this study and each notebook is the result of the work of a single aspect or genus within that family. In other cases where only minor work was done with a particular family, one notebook may encompass several families. In creating the finding aid, no attempt has been made to include collection sites, names of collectors or dates in the notebook descriptions since it was felt that access to the material would be possible through the plant family or genus name.

The initial arrangement, inventory, and description of the collection concluded in October of 1980 with the aid of a grant from NHPRC. It was done by Barbara Mykrantz, Dorothy Fleshman, James Hammerschmidt, and Clara N. Szabados under the supervision of James R. Reed, Director of Libraries. Carla Lange and Jules Gewinner assisted with translations in the assembling of the finding aid. In subsequent years, additional translations of the correspondence were systematically conducted by Edgar Denison, Manfred Thurmann, and Sven Eliasson. In 2013, the Missouri Botanical Garden's staff revisited, updated, and digitized the correspondence series with the support of the Institute of Museum and Library Services under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act as administered by the Missouri State Library, a division of the Office of the Secretary of State.


Abbot, Henry L. 1831-1927

Office of Expeditions & Surveys, War Dept., Washington, DC
1 Message October 27, 1857

Abert, J. J. (John James) 1788-1863

Bureau of Topographical Engr., Washington, DC
2 Messages December 10, 1858 – December 26, 1958
Subjects: Receipt and forwarding of box containing Engelmann's botanical collections from Capt. Simpson's survey party.

Adair, John

Dublin, Ireland
2 Messages August 21, 1874 – November 2, 1874
Subjects: Request for information regarding variation in Yucca species.
Acknowledgement of receipt of material and seeds of Yucca.
People: J. B. Baker of Kew

Agassiz, Jean Louis Rudolph 1807-1874

Cambridge and "At sea between the Galapagos and Panama"
9 Messages May 15, 1849 – June 20, 1875
Subjects: Variation of Opuntias on different islands and lack of variation in Cereus sp.

Allen, James Thomas 1831-1885

Superintendent of planting for UPRR; Union Pacific Railway, Omaha, NE
2 Messages September 23, 1882 – March 17, 1886
Subjects: Planting various Pinus, Abies and Picea and their adaptation to different locales, e.g. Cheyenne Pass.
People: J. H. Masters and Robert Douglas

Allen, John Alphonse 1863-1916

New Haven, CT
2 Messages January 29, 1882 – January 15, 1883
Subjects: Request for identification of undetermined Picea and Juncus. (Includes extensive descriptions of Juncus).

Allen, Thomas 1813-1882

Office of the State Board of Centennial Manager (Pres.); St. Louis, MO
1 Messages November 22, 1875
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to write a memoir or essays about Missouri plants. Engelmann’s response is on the verso.

Allen, Timothy Field, M.D. 1837-1902

Brooklyn and New York City [NY]
9 Messages July 1, 1860 – January 15, 1884
Subjects: Request for bit of Chara from various locales, western Marsilea and Characeae Americanae Exsiccatae.
People: Braun, Cassino, Eaton, Hooker, Helmaier, Gray.

Alvord, Benjamin 1813-1884

Jefferson Barracks, MO; Boston, MA; Fort Gratiot, MI; Washington, DC
5 Messages February 13, 1844 – February 26, 1882
Subjects: Silphium lacinatum, its peculiar characteristics and range. Lactuca with similar characteristics.

Alvord, William 1833-1904

San Francisco, CA
1 Message August 11, 1881
Subjects: Yucca macrocarpa seeds germinating at Golden Gate Park.

Anderson, Charles Lewis 1827-1910

Santa Cruz, CA
2 Messages October 26, 1871 – January 15, 1873
Subjects: Request for information on Yucca Junci of North America.
Specimens of Pinus insignis sent from Monterey, CA.
People: Bolander, Dr. Canfield and Gray visiting him in Santa Cruz, (California).

Andersson, Nils Johan 1821-1880

Stockholm, Sweden
4 Messages July 27, 1858 – March 24, 1874 (2 correspondence in German with English translation)
Subjects: Sending Engelmann a box of Galapagos (Islands) plants in exchange for American plants.

Andras, John C [1832-1924?]

Jacksonville, IL
3 Messages February 8, 1861 – March 6, 1868
Subjects: Andras' procedure for germinating seeds and growing Rhipsalis.
An account of Andras' travels from 1863-1868.

Andrews, Geo. (Mrs.)

Knoxville, [TN]
1 Message July 19, 1879
Subjects: Engelmann's query about the late Dr. Rugel's plant collection, particularly Isoetes from Texas.
Discovery of the fact that Dr. Rugal's birthplace was Wirtemburg.
People: Dr. Ferdinand Ignatius Xavier Rugel 1806-1879

Arends, Friedrich [1782-1861?]

Huntsville, MO
1 Message August 17, 1855 (German-no translation)

Arthur, Joseph Charles 1850-1942

Charles City, Fayette and Ames, IA
4 Messages November 8, 1875 – November 13, 1882
Subjects: Publication of catalogue of the Phaenogams of Iowa.
Request for identification of plants being prepared for the centennial.
Desire for information on Sagittaria in Engelmann's possession.
Plants: Psoralea, Marsilia, Lespedeza, Potentilla, Quercus with field notes for locations on the Des Moines River.
People: Al. [Alexander] Braun.
Places: Des Moines River.

Ascherson, Paul 1834-1913

Berlin, Germany
3 Messages July 19, 1867 – August 7, 1874 (German - with English translations done in 1998-9 by Westin and Eliasson)
Subjects: Exchange of publications. Compairson of Hungarian Cuscuta fragments. Classification of Zostera (Atlantic coast, Russia, India), Phyllospadix (California and Russia), Thalassia (Gulf coast). Mussels (Florida, Cuba). Specimen exchange.
People: Alexander Braun, Henry Bolander, Asa Gray, Louis François de Pourtalès, Wright, Alvan Chapman, Viviani, Morris, Pori.
Plants: Cuscuta, Zostera, Phyllospadix, Thalassia.

Atwood, Charles M.D. 1854-1928

Moravia, NY
1 Message May 26, 1881
Subject: Request for Engelmann’s monograph on North American Junci.

Austin, Coe Finch 1831-1880

New York City and Albany, NY; Closter, NJ
36 Messages February 19, 1862 – December 12, 1876
Subjects: Descriptions of Spiranthes found on Staten Island and the Palisades. Callitriche found on the rocky cliffs of the Mississippi and elsewhere. Extensive discussions and field notes on Callitriche November 7, 1869 throughout the series; findings on Juncus with field notes. Lemna from various locations discussed throughout the series.
Wolffia from Cuba, New Jersey and other eight locations discussed in 1867 letters and those April 8, 1872 following. Sketches in letter. Hepaticae, his publications of a monograph, North American Hepatice, extensive January 2, 1869 ff. discussions and notes.
Questioning Sullivant's determination of Rellia heliocopica as to whether it is even January 2, 1872 a Hepatic!
Plants: Nuphar, new Danthonia, Riccia New Jersey pine Barren plants, Pyrola, Botrychium, Linum, Sphangum, Pogonia, Equisetum.
People: Gray (sent specimens and notes to him), Lesquereux (Austin received specimens and notes from him), Wright (Lemnaceae from Cuba), Nuttall, Macoun, Dr. Torrey, Hegelmaier, New York botanist interested in Lemans (September 23, 187?), Leggett, Parker, Henry Gillman (has Wolffia in flower), Schweinitz, Sullivant, Mr. James, and Col. E. Jewett.
Places: Sam's Point on Shawanqunk Mt.,New York; Orange County; Pigeon River Falls; Europe (and various plants from Europe); British America; Lake Superior; Lake Huron country; Japan; Pennsylvania; Oregon; Lake Ontario (Big Sandy Bay); Florida (expedition for Musci); Delaware County, New York; Arkansas; western mountains, and Patagonia.

Austin, E. P.

Assistant U. S. Lake Survey. Oconto, WI, Washington, DC
4 Messages July 16, 1863 – April 6, 1867
Subjects: Sending box of specimens of Pinus banksiana and presinosa of which he was unable to find open cones. Includes descriptions on cones and field notes.
Plants: Pinus, Picea, and Abies.


Bache, Alexander Dallas 1806-1867

Superintendent, Coast Survey Office, Washington, DC
1 Message November 21, 1859
Subjects: Request for geographical information for North America profiles. (List of botanists by Engelmann on reverse of letter).

Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887

Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC; Carlisle, PA; Cleveland, OH; Elizabethtown, Rochester, NY
70 Messages December 18, 1850 – May 9, 1881
Subjects: Request for procurement of specimens of reptiles from Missouri for centennial.
Limitations concerning purchase of books and transmission of articles of natural history or archaelology from abroad for Engelmann and Shaw; possibility of obtaining the items by exchange or donations rather than by direct purchase. Engelmann's collecting of acting as director of collections of plants and animals for the Smithsonian.
Formulas for preservative. (Feb., 1859) (Apr. 27, 1855).
Financial and transportation arrangements for collections.
Disturbances in the Smithsonian.
Details of printing illustrations.
Expeditions to the Bering Straits and Northern California.
Collectors: Thos. C. Porter, Dr. Drake, Dr. H. C. Prout, Mr. M. Rengil, Dr. Leidy, Mr. Culbert, Fendler, Wislizenus, Dr. Le Conte, Dr. Hammond, Mr. Harvey, Charles Wright, Dr. Carl Scheryer of Vienna, Rearney, Price Paul, Major Emory, Dr. Berlandier, Lt. Donaldson at Ft. Union and Lt. Mullen at St. Paul, Dr. Hayden, John Polts of Chihuahua, Glasgow Bros., Dr. Bigelow, Dr. J. S. Newberry, Dr. Sterling, Lt. Warren, T. O. Weyel, Robert Rennicott, Dr. Cories, Dr. Parry, Prof. W. H. Brewer, Bolander, Dr. Palmer, Mr. Sander, Agents & Capt. van Vliet, Choteau & Co.,General S. Churchill, Prof. Lichtenstein and the Prussian Council, Prof. Henry Henkels.

Baird, William F. 1830-? (from 1880 census)

Agent, Bloomington Nursery (Baird & Tuttle, Agents) Bloomington, IL
1 Messages January 27, 1881
Subjects: Request for determination of wild grape by seed enclosed and description.
People: Dr. Vasey.

Baker, Charles Henry

Philadelphia, PA
1 Message August 31, 1878
Subjects: Request for information on localities where Nelumbium luteum may be found.

Baker, John Gilbert 1834-1920

Royal Herbarium, Kew
4 Messages October 1, 1870 – November 5, 1873
Subjects: Mr. Wilson Saunders establishing Refugium Botanicum with intentions of a yearly publication. Mr. Saunder's bankruptcy and collections dispersed.
Extensive discussion of Yucca and related plants and their study in England being in a cloudy state.
Statement that Engelmann misinformed about Yucca treculiana Carriere.
Set of Yucca specimens cultivated in England forwarded through Smithsonian.
Plant naming rules.
Plants: Hesperalõe, Sedum, Echeveria, Scilla, Ledebouria, Agave, Yucca.*
People: Principal men cultivating Yucca in England: Mr. Thos. Moore, Rev. Ellacombe, Mr. Adair, Dr. Parry, Dr. Gray, and H. G. Reichenbach.

Bandelier, Adolph Francis Alphonse 1840-1914

Highland, IL
11 Messages March 6, 1862 – December 23, 1882 (Some translated from German)
Subjects: Meteorological observations in Highland.
Receipt of cacti from Engelmann.
Mexican monograph.
Bandelier's son's expedition to Vera Cruz.
Bandelier's archaeological studies.

Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter 1809-1889

Chairman of the Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC
1 Message May 20, 1864
Subjects: Design for the seal of the National Academy of Sciences.

Barnes, George William 1825-1890

President, San Diego Society of Natural History, San Diego, CA
1 Message November 23, 1875
Subjects: Relationship between tree and forest culture on the falls of rain and snow on western prairies and railroads.

Barroeta, Gregorio Corbalan 1831-1906

San Luis Potosi, Mexico
7 Messages September 4, 1878 – April 25, 1882
Subjects: Opuntia tunicata, common name Clarellina, with field notes.
Sending Tuna cardona, Tuna cuija, Opuntia and Agave seeds.
Description of lechuguilla, Palma.
Description of uses and origin of 'Amolli.'
Discussion of fibers and mescal alcohol from Agave.
Results of snow on vegetation in Tierra Caliente.
Sending specimens of Yucca and palms in roadworks between San Luis and Tampico.
Meterological investigations of 1880 from San Luis Potosi.
People: Dr. C. C. Parry, Dr. Ed. Palmer and Mr. von Mueller.
Places: Monterey, San Antonio, Texas; and Monterey, Mexico.

Bartholf, Dr. John H.

U. S. Army, Camp Harney, OR
9 Messages April 5, 1875 – June 2, 1876
Subjects: Sending seeds and specimens of Ranunculus, Viola (Nuttall's) with field notes and soil conditions noted.
Climate conditions.
Plants: Camas, Ranunculus, Phlox, Cerasus, Schrankia, Scilla, Camassia, Astragalus, Heliotrope, Eastern quamash, Hyacinth, Mallows, Prunus, and Pomeae.
People: Capt. Bendire.

Barton, Edward Hall 1796-1859

New Orleans, LA
3 Messages April 15, 1854 – January 10, 1856
Subjects: Climate and meteorological conditions in New Orleans particularly as related to yellow fever, cholera and heat related conditions, with climate records kept for Engelmann; report of the Sanitary Commission and reports for the Smithsonian.
People: La Roche, Dr. Barnes.

Bary, Heinrich Anton de 1831-1888

Strasbourg/ Strassburg France/Germany
6 Messages April 24, 1868- March 1880
German originals. Transliterations and translations.
Subjects: Cythis biology; cholera contagium "fraud"; Yucca pollination;Specimen exchanges and associated transport problems. University and city rebuilding. Health problems of family and friends.
Plants: Characaea; Cythis; Prosopanche; Ranunculus; Azolla; Okra; Vitio; Yucca.
Animals: Antiarch; Prodoxa; Colorado beetles
People: Ernst Hallier; Dr.Finder; Hermann Müller; Schimpfer; Braun; Mrs. Caspary; Buchinger
Places: Strasbourg
Note: 1st message is from de Bary to Braun and was forwarded to Engelmann.

Bastin, Edison Sewell 1843-1897

The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
1 Message August 12, 1877
Subjects: Indentification of cactus from Pine Station in northwestern Indiana.

Baston, L. B.

Captain, U. S. Army, Fort Leavenworth, MO
1 Message August 25, 1847
(Letter to Lt. Col. Aeneas. E. Mackay -1850)
Subjects: Receipt of plant collections from the West.

Baugh, Edwin. P. 1831-1888

Baugh & Sons, Manufacturer of Animal Charcoal, Philadelphia, PA
1 Message February 26, 1881
Subjects: Request for information on petrified bone from Dallas, Texas, received from H. B. O'Reilly and on locating mineral phosphate in the West.

Baum, Albert

Imperial German Consulate, St. Louis, MO
3 Messages September 3, 1881 – October 22, 1881
Subjects: Receipt of cacti and request for information on cultivation of pecan and black walnut trees in Germany.

Bebb, Michael Schuck 1833-1895

Fountaindale, Springfield and Rockford, IL
U. S. Pension Office; U. S. Patent Office; Washington, DC
21 Messages April 22, 1859 – July 7, 1882
Subjects: Juncus,* Salix,* and Quercus* collections and determinations in Sierra Nevada, California and Colorado.
Quercus hybridization experiments.
Engelmann's trip to San Francisco.
Plants: Alismaceae, Pulsatilla, Ranunculus, Draba, Geum, Castilleia, Lithospermum, Sagittaria and Cypripedium collections in northern Illinois.
People: Dr. Chapman - Bebb questions his Juncus determinations.
Mr. Tatnall, Lindheimer, Mr. E. Hall, Mr. Canby, Mr. Olney, Andersson, Hartweg, Dr. Hooker, Gray's herbarium, Geyer's collections, Watson, Babcock and Dr. Parry.

Beccari, Oloardo 1843-1920

Director of Botanical Garden and Museum, Florence, Italy. (translations)
3 Messages April 2, 1879 – April 8, 1880
Subjects: Agave, Yucca, and wild vines from America. Beccari's resignation as director of the museum.

Beck, Charles 1827-1906

Martindale Conservatory and Green Houses, Dayton, OH
1 Message July 14, 1879
Subjects: Propagation of Agave and offer of some to Engelmann.

Beckwith, Edward Griffen 1818-1881

Washington, DC
2 Messages December 14, 1854 – May 22, 1855
Subjects: Error in Engelmann's report (for the Pacific RR).
People: Dr. Jacob (aka James) Heinrich Wilhelm Schiel.

Behr, Hans Herman 1818-1904

San Francisco, CA
4 Messages July 11, 1860-March 8, 1864
Subjects: Inabililty to furnish native California plants de to lack of time, equipment and specimens. Desire to obtain butterfly specimen from St. Louis area. Problems with Natural History Society.
Plants: Ceanothus, Chenopodium, Erigeron, Garrya, Austratian acacia, Kennedia, Clianthus, Eucalyptus, Pittosporum, Typha, Nelumbium, Nuphar, Alismtaceae, Cuscuta, Sagittaria, Salicornia, Euphorbia, Pterospora, Pinus, Castilleja, Calochortus, cactus, Rhus, Cotinus, Neurada, Buxus, Cressa, Isomeris, Quercus, Adenostoma.
People: Enno Sander, Albert Kellogg, Mr. Roder, Henry Bollander.
Places: San Fransico, Los Angeles, San bernadino, San Diego, Baja, Clear Lake.

Bendire, Charles 1836-1897

Capt., U. S. Army. Camp Harney, OR; Fort Walla, Washington Territory
16 Messages November 7, 1874 – May 14, 1879
Subjects: Descriptions and collections of plants at each location.
Good descriptions of locale where collections made.
Nez Perce campaign and court martial of Bendire.
Yakima Indian tribe.
Collection of skulls for Engelmann's son.
Plants: Artemisia, Pinus, Juniperus, mountain mahogany, willows, cottonwoods, wild fica vines, Viola beckwithii,* wild cherry, buttercups.
Places: Yellowstone River, Fort Boise, John Day River.

Bennett, (Mrs. Charles H.)

Pipe Stone City, Pipe Stone County, MN
1 Messages July 10, 1883
Subjects: Sending Engelmann cacti specimens in response to request of Prof. Warren Upham, Assistant to State Geologist, with descriptions of plants.

Bennett, James Lawrence 1832-1904

Herbarium, Brown University, Providence, RI
2 Messages November 18, 1880 – April 8, 1881
Subjects: Delay in determinations of Mr. Olney's material prepared for his "Carices Boreali-Americanae"; [Henry] Eggert's collection for Bennett.

Bentham, George 1800-1884

London, [England]
4 Messages April 20, 1858 – October 21, 1879
Subjects: North Brazil and Venezuela plant collection for sale from Mr. Spruce. Planchon's arrangement of Araliaceae in Revue Horticole. Wright's notes on Hong Kong plants, e.g. Cassia. Descriptions of Phoradendron as compared to Arceuthobium. Extensive discussion of Coniferae. (Aug., 1879) systematic arrangement.
Plants: Euphorbiaceae.
People: de Candolle, Hooker
See also Box 12, Botanical Notebook 27, folder 5 (May 23, 1879).

Berge, Ernst von 1836-1897

Leipzig, [Germany]
1 Message February 12, 1883
Subjects: Prospective negotiations for cacti as a commercial venture, mentioning Baron Eggers, Messrs. Haage and Schmidt (Seedsmen) and Mr. P. A. von Essen.

Bernays, Dr. Francis Jacob 1818-1894

St. Genevieve, MO
1 Message February 8, 1877 (German - no translation)
Subjects: Glycine chinensis, etc.

Bertolet, Robert Morris 1846-1882

Fort Bayard, NM
1 Message November 5, 1877
Subjects: Collections of Agave and Quercus for Engelmann.
People: Mr. Edward Greene.

Bessey, Charles Edwin 1845-1915

Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, IA
4 Messages. August 2, 1876 – February 21, 1881
Subjects: Requests for material on Dr. Engelmann for planned publication "Progress of Botany in the U. S. in the Year 1880" to be in American Naturalist.
(Letter of Sept. 4, 1880 directed to Dr. George J. Engelmann, Jr. as Engelmann is in the West).

Bigelow, John Milton 1804-1878

Camp at the mouth of the Canon on Rio Grande sixty miles below San Elceano, TX; near El Paso del Norte; Camp Sumner opposite Presidio del Norte; Eagle Pass, San Antonio, TX; Steam Boat "Empire State", Ohio River; Lancaster, OH; Steamer "James Robb"; Fort Smith, AR; Albuquerque (NM)
12 Messages January 24, 1852 – November 9, 1853
Subjects: Bigelow's collections as part of the survey of Lt. A. W. Whipple.
The final results were published in Reports of Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Vol IV. 1856.
Plants: Musci collections sent to Mr. Sullivant for determination, Cereus* and Opuntia* from El Paso and Lake Gusman, Fouquiera, Bignonieae, Opuntia gracilis compared with O. vaginata, Cereus dasyacanthus,* Cereus roemeri,* Mamillaria* (notes from Eagle Pass, Texas), Yucca* Lycopcdiaceae, Anhalonium (synonym for Mamillaria), Mamillaria and Cereus relating to controversy with Mr. Wright.
People: Dr. Gray, Dr. Torrey, Mr. Sullivant, Mr. Wright, Major Emory, Wislizenus' report, Dr. Parry, Mr. Schott, Mr. Sweet.
Places: Leona Station, E. Texas; Frontera; Cibilo; Rio Colorado trip with Lt. Whipple.

Lancaster, OH; Davenport, [IA]
26 Messages February 13, 1855 – January 27, 1859
Subjects: Bigelow confers with Engelmann about publication of the report on the collections in the Southwest with Lt. Whipple's party. Discussions of difficulties.
Bigelow's map of cacti indicating sections and subsections and species by color.
Bigelow's making a living from medicine and surgery.
Rewriting of report, delays, discussion of mistakes in names of specimens in the report.
Speculation about Congressional bills regarding financing of Pacific Railroad
Plants: Cereus,* Yucca,* and Opuntia* collections (May 19, 1855); Yucca - description of that growing near Sierra Nevada. Echinocactus - history of collection sites (July 16, 1855). Opuntia germination (Aug. 10, 1855). Pinus and wood of Sequoia, Mamillaria.*
People: Lt. Tidball, Mollhauser, Linnaeus' divisions and Dr. Torrey, Capt. Whipple, Prince Salm's division of Cerei, Mr. Ewing, Dr. Shumard, Jefferson Davis (Secretary of War), Le Conte, Mr. Campbell - pine cone drawings and collections from Mohave and Mr. Roetter's pine cone drawings.
Places: Congressional Garden in Washington; Cactus Pass; Colorado (Echinocactus collections).

Office of A & A W. Lake Survey, Detroit, MI
4 Messages March 27, 1863 – September 20, 1863
Subjects: Bigelow's meteorological observations for Engelmann.
Engelmann' skill as a meteorological observer.
Discussion of wet bulb, dry bulb techniques, and instructions given by Smithsonian.
Observer; Engelmann's psycrometer better.
Collections in Lake Superior District.
Plants: Picea nigra and alba - Engelmann has found growing as a native, also from Green Bay. Descriptions of locale where spruces were collected, both living and herbarium specimens.
People: Prof. Guyot, Mr. Austin, Dr. Parry and Mr. Roetter.

Detroit, MI
15 Messages March 20, 1865 – March 23, 1866
Subjects: Collections of water plants, particularly water lilies, for Engelmann as part of the Lake Survey.
Collections of John A. Paine in Utica, New York and environs.
Sending of abstract of the barometer and thermometer readings for past year.
Quotes Paine's description of Nymphaea, various species. (Mar. 23, 1866)
Reflections on the development of his botanical career. (op. cit)
Plants: Callitriche from Bay of Bodega and San Francisco, California, Nymphaea, various species. - extensive discussions and notes; Isoetes; Nuphar, various species. - extensive discussion and notes; Nais zanichella - Lindley's hydral alliances description; Potomogeton and Nitella - fruit from Bloody Run.
People: Dr. Parry, Winchell's list of Isoetes and Callitriche, Dr. Torrey, Gray, E. P. Austin in Nautical Almanac Office, Cambridge, Mr. Schott, John A. Paine.
Places: Bloody*; Common Creek, Detroit River; Grand Marais, Park Marsh*; May's Creek and Belle Isle.

Detroit, MI
36 Messages June 8, 1866 – March 11, 1874
Subjects: Collections of water plants for Lake Survey, particularly Juncaceae. Collections of Vitaceae for Engelmann, references to Winchell's cat.
Discussion of Austin's collection of Juncus.
Description of locales where Nuphar was collected. (6-9-1866)
Methods of storage of specimens. (6-25-1866)
Light hearted controversy between Parry and Bigelow.
Difficulties in collections of flower and fruit of Lemna and Wolffia.
Reflections on plans for living "Cactareum."
Plants: Juncus,* parasitic fungus from Nesaea verticillata - effect on cattle. Nuphar, Nelumbiaceae and Cobombaceae, Equisetum, Carex, Lemna,* Wolffia,* Vitis, Sambuci, Nicotiana, Libocendrus, Loranthaceae, and Sargassum.
People: E. P. Austin, Schott, Wright, Thurber, W. Wheeler of Lake Survey, Elliot, Dr. Sartwell, Father Holzer, Prof. Leidy, Lewis, Mr. Gilamn, Mr. Foote, Mr. Marr of Lake Survey, Filman, Lindley, Burnett, and Winchell.

Bishop, James Nathaniel 1851-1906

Plainville, CN
3 Messages March 26, 1878 – May 3, 1878
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann, information on Cactaceae.

Black, A. R. (Archibald Ray), 1823-1889

Rocky Point, New Hanover Co., NC
1 Message May 10, 1871
Subjects: Pine collections for Engelmann.

Blodget, Lorin, 1823-1901

Philadelphia, [PA] Office of the Board of Trade.
2 Messages June 6, 1853 – June 20, 1863
Subjects: Meteorological observations at different altitudes.

Böcking, H. V. (Boecking)

Blair Co., PA
1 Message. December 15, 1859 (German with translation)
Subjects: Exchange of North American plants for alpine flora of Pennsylvania.

Boissier, Edmond Pierre 1810-1885

Geneva [Switzerland]; Valynes or Valeynes, Canton Appenzall.
21 Messages May 14, 1859 – December 28, 1887 (French - some translations)
Plants: Euphorbiaceae.
People: Friedrich Klotzsch, Alphonse de Candolle, Asa Gray, Georg Mettenius, Alexander Braun, Georges François Reuter.
Places: Paris, London.

Bolander, Henry Nicholas 1831-1897

San Francisco, CA; Ukiah; Mendocino County, Monterey, [CA]; Yosemite Valley, [CA]; Mariposa Big Tree Grove and Sacramento, CA
54 Messages October 15, 1863 – December 5, 1866, February 5, 1867 – May 16, 1878 (Mostly German with translations)
Subjects: Bolander is a teacher who collects botanical specimens for various botanists in the Eastern U. S., European botanist and collects for and complains to Engelmann about his treatment by other botanists.
Preparation of catalogue of Yosemite plants.
Preparation of distribution map of conifers.
Plants: Pinus* - Douglas' findings. Sequoia,* Carices at high altitudes, California mosses and other cryptograms (in later letters interested in working with these himself), Juncus, Nuphar, oaks* (Kellogg's collections), Chara from Rapier River, Marsilia, Selaginella, Isoetes, aquatic and bog plants* (10-19-1865), Callitriche, Cast. ohrysophylla, Carex, grasses, Tsuga, Sanicula, and Ranunculus* - dispute of identification by Prof. Wood. Lemna, Cupressus, at Tamal Pais, Abies question, Yucca, Calamagrostis, dicentra.
People: Prof. Brewer's survey, Mr. Lelson, Prof. Gray, Prof. Tuckerman, Dr. Behr, Dr. Torrey, Hall, Bebb, Canby, Parry, Canfield, Prof. Whitney, Kellog, Murray, Dr. Hillebrand's collection in Sierra, Baron Leonard, Mr. Lenormand, de Candolle and oaks of San Francisco, Mr. King, Arenson, Braun, Dr. Gottsche, Prof. Palatore, Dr. Cooper, Dr. Panz, Dr. Bernstein.
Places: Monte de Diablo, Marion Co., Nevada Territory, Santa Cruz, Vesalia, Anderson Valley, Aubrun, Tamal Pais,* Clear Lake,* Santa Barbara coal oil fields, Reese River in Nevada, Geyersville, Rapier River,* Marysville, Lake Borax, Mission Dolores - western suburb of San Francisco, Natahole River, Bolander's trip to Guatemala.

Bolle, Carl 1821-1909

Berlin, Germany
5 Messages July 11, 1858 – January 3, 1880 (German with translations)
Subjects: His work with Gramineae and exchanges of plants.
Interest in trees, particularly Ulmus*.
Plants: Picea, Yucca, Pinus from Serbia, with climate relationship.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Thurber, Alexander von Homeyer, Mr. Pancik, Sargent, Berlin Committee on Woodland Science.
Places: Estate in Scharfenberg, Potsdam, Germany, Norway, East Prussia, Vienna.

Booth, John Cornelius 1836-1909

Klein Flottbeck, Germany
1 Message January 24, 1880
Subject: Request for publication information about Douglas Pine and American trees.
People: Carl A. Bolle, J. Hooker.

Boott, William 1805-1886

Boston [MA]
18 Messages September 1, 1866 – April 3, 1882
Subjects: Collections of Isoetes* for Engelmann et al.
Harbor Commission affecting growing conditions for plants.
Pond conditions, mineral deposits caused by tidal flows.
Map of Isoetes collections. (September 1866)
Plants: Isoetes,* Scirpius, various species; Aster and Solidago; Potamogeton, Spartina and Carex with habitat descriptions where Isoetes grows; Scirtius growing with Isoetes*.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Durant(?).

Bornet, Edouard 1828-1911

Paris and Rutibes, [France] s/b Antibes France?
2 Messages July 7, 1875 – July 20, 1876 (French with translations)
Subjects: Discussion of Yucca, Opuntia and Agave.
Cypresses cultivated by Mr. Thuret.
Collections in Antibes and Nice, France
People: M. Decaisne, Asa Gray.

Böttcher, Clothar

Richmond, [VA]
2 Messages November 21, 1854 – January 30, 1855 (German – translations)
Subject: Shipment of snakes to Engelmann. Request for cactus seeds for Mr. Moritz Leeger.

Bracht, Felix, M.D. 1808-1882

Valley P. Office, Guadaloupe County, TX
1 Photo 1873
People: Bracht, Felix (portrait)

Valley P. Office, Guadaloupe County, TX
1 Message May 12, 1873 (Translated from German)
Bracht to Engelmann
Subjects: Lamenting poor attitude communities have towards doctors and scientists; feels American politics is the “pits.”
Diagnosis of icterus.
People: Lindheimer, Professor Gaillard, Professor Kapp.
Places: New Braunfels.

Brandegee, Townshend Stith 1843-1925

Canon City, CO; Camp on the La Plata; Berlin, CT; Camp on the Cristones; Canon of the Arkansas; Canoncito, Santa Fe, NM; Alpine, Coal Ck. Canon, Camp Mt. Marcellina, Irwin, St. Elmo, CO
34 Messages April 7, 1873 - December 13, 1882
Subjects: An extensive correspondence relating to collections in the Southwest which includes many detailed field notes and diagrams.
Plants: Abies,* (11-27-1874); Cactaceae, Cuscuta, Pinus,* Quercus,* Picea, Isoetes, Potentilla, Menzanthes, Lemna, Myriophyllum, Juniperus,* Mentzelia,* Arceuthobium as a parasite on various conifers, Galium,* Phoradendron.*
People: Prof. Thomas Porter,* D. C. Eaton, J. H. Redfield - aid in identifying specimens.
Clarence King's report, Mr Putman, Dr. Briggs, Mr. Knapp, E. Hall, Mrs. Cheetz, Dr. Gray, Mr. Watson, Dr. Newberry, McComb's expedition, Hayden's annual report, Dr. Hooker, Prof. Peck, Mr. Sargent, D. Brigg's death, Dr. Gray, Mr. Thompson and Mr. Putman - discussion of Mentzelia, Mr. Meehan - discussion of Abies concolor.
Places: Oak Creek Canon, Colorado Springs, Pikes' Peak, South Park Road, Ute Pass Road, Fremont County, Sangre de Cristo Mts., Las Pinos Pass, La Platta Mts., Rio Grande, Utah, Arizona, Sierra La Plata, Canon City,* Manitou, San Juan Valley, Animas Valley, Rio Manios, Arkansas Canon, head of Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, Mill Mill Creek, My Ouray, Canon of the Arkansas, Platte Canon, Santa Fe, St. Elmo, Gunnison City, Ute Reservation.

Braun, Alexander Carl Heinrich 1805-1877

Berlin, Germany
1 Message. April 15, 1866 (German - no translation) Folder 1
Braun to E. Hall. Athens.

5 Messages February 11, 1867 - January 18, 1868
Braun to George Engelmann
Subjects: Isoetes. George Engelmann Jr.’s best options for his education. Help with identification of Characeae.
People: George Engelmann, Jr.

16 Messages March 18, 1866 – August 2, 1870
Engelmann to Braun
Subjects: Extensive discussion of Isoetes species determinations, naming, and distinctions with some lists of collections sites, notes, etc.
Brief discussion of Lemna and Equisetum sp.

Braun, Johannes 1859-1893

Heidelberg, Germany
1 Message May 1, 1883
Subjects: Exchange of plants, particularly cactus.

Brendel, Friedrich 1820-1912

Peoria, IL
29 Messages May 13, 1852 – May 12, 1883
Subjects: Brendel's medical practice and that of others in the German population of Peoria.
Brendel's work with geographical distribution of plants.
Collections of reptiles and fish for Washington.
Plants: Pentalophus, Androsace, Bryophytes, Pulsatilla, Anemonanthea, Astragalus, Phara, Cheilanthes, Glumaceae, Nelumbiuma, Quercus,* Peraphyllum, Paspalum, Brunnichia, and Hydrolea in Pulaski County.
People: Mr. Wieland, Fremont, Emory, Carl Muller, Oberhauser, Wislizenus, Jacques Gay's work with Quercus, Grebel, Mr. Ord of St. Louis, Martin and Jens Vahl with biographical information, Dr. Parry.

Brewer, Thomas Mayo 1814-1880

Bar Harbor, ME
1 Message July 30, 1877
Subjects: A collector friend has difficulties with the Indians in Indian Valley, Idaho.

Brewer, William Henry 1828-1910

Office of the Geological Survey of California, San Francisco, CA
Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, New Haven, CT; Cambridge, MA
46 Messages December 3, 1863 – April 22, 1880
Subjects: Employment by the State Geological Society. Effects of altitude and temperature on growing plants.
Publication of Flora of California and Botany of the Western U. S. including requests for help from Engelmann with the plants he is most expert with.
Work in Microscopic Fungi "rusts, smuts, mildew, etc."
Plants: Coniferae - Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, Sequoia Cactaceae - Cereus, etc. (request for help with). Yucca,* Nuphar, Callitriche, Isoetes, Oenothera, Cuscuta, Agave, Loranthaceae, collected by Brewer, Cooper and Horn.
Quercus,* Vitis - Cupressus macrocarpa - notes in November 14, 1879.
Juncus* collections with descriptive notes in San Luis Obispo, Santa Margarit Valley, upper Salinas Valley, Sierras, "Laguna" southwest of the Soledad Mission, San Francisco. (3-7-1866)
Ephedra used as a tea by prospectors and for medicinal properties.
People: Mr. Bolander,* Eaton,* Thurber, Boott, Dr. Parry, Dr. Kellogg, Dr. Gray,* Prof. Whitney,* Dr. Hillebrand, Manzel(?), Wossnessensky, Mr. Gabb of California Geological Survey, Mr Watson,* Dr. Lobb Murrey, Savage of Salt Lake, Hoffman, Dr. C. L. Anderson of Santa Cruz, Whitney, Jeffries' collections in British Columbia.
Places: Sierras at various altitudes, Ebbett's Pass, Camp Ross, peninsula of Lower California, Roky Mts., Monterey, Siskeyou Mts., Santa Lucia Mts., Point Conception, valleys of Lake Tahoe, San Gabriel, San Joaquin, Mt. Shasta, Silver Trail from Calaveras Big Tree Grove to Silver Mountain, Clark's Ranch, San Bernhardin Mts., Duffield's Ranch, in hills of Sierras between Yuba and Toulumne River, Picea collected in 1864 in southern Sierra Nevada.

Briscoe, Thomas D.

Uxbridge, MA; Cincinnati, OH
3 Messages October 31, 1870 – November 21, 1882
Subjects: Request for plants, particularly Azolla.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord 1859-1934

SI[Staten Island], NY
3 Messages July 4, 1879 – December 10, 1879
Subjects: Opuntia and Juncus collected by Prof. Peck on Coney Island and Mr. H. P. Worcester of Norfolk, VA; Torrey Club.

Broadhead, Garland Carr 1827-1912

Pleasant Hill, Cass County, MO; Toronto and El Dorado, KS
53 Messages April 22, 1864 – May 27, 1882
Subjects: Broadhead is a geologist working on the state surveys and collecting for Engelmann.
Blooming dates given in many of the spring and fall letters.
Meteorological observations and the effects of weather and climate on plants.
Observations on the effect of the substrata on distributions of plants; in many cases gives exact locations for particular species.
Plants: Quercus,* Erythronium, Baptisia,* Lithospermum, Astragalus, Verbena,* Amphiachyris, Boltonia,* Corydalis,* Salvia,* Anemone, Collinsia, Pencedanum, Troximon,* Aquilegia,* Delphinium,* Vicia, Trillium, Amphicarpaea, Apios, Impatiens, Lophanthus, Sabbatica, Gentiana,* Hibiscus, Ipomaea, Asters, Viola,* Dicentra, Isoxynum, Lobelia, peculiar orchid,* Eupatorium connection with milk sickup, Leman, Xanthium, Dodecatheon, Tecoma, various grasses, Gerardia,* Silene, Dipteracanthus, Capsella, Claytonia, Plantago, Cleome, Vitis,* Yucca angustifolia, Asclepias, Penstemon, Solanum, Abies (Pseudotsuga, Callinhoe.
Places: Collections in Missouri, (several counties in both Missouri and Kansas) Kansas, Illinois, Colorado, New Mexico with specific locale given for a particular species collected in many instances.
Description on the geology in Cass County Missouri with plant associations. (4-22-1864)

Brongniart, Adolphe Theodore 1801-1876

Paris, [France]
1 Message March 6, 1860 (French -English translation)
Subjects: Brief, general description of cacti, Gramineae and Cuscuta. Request for cacti and Graminae seeds.

Brown, Addison 1830-1913

Vice President, Torrey Club, New York, NY
1 Message November 7, 1879
Subjects: Work with adventive botany.

Brown, Alfred

Glasgow [Scotland]
3 Messages November 1, 1873 – January 28, 1874
Subjects: Criticism of Tryon's book on Molluska.

Brown, Benjamin Boyer, M.D. 1809-1863

St. Louis, MO; Sacramento, CA
3 Messages February 8, 1840 – January 13, 1852
February 8, 1840 To Engelmann in Georgetown
March 11, 1840 To Engelmann in New York
January 13, 1852
Subjects: Collections in California.
Purchase and sale of medical instruments and Medical Society.

Brown, John Croumbie

1 Message November 14, 1873
Subjects: Development of forest sciences.

Bruhin, Thomas Aquina 1835-1896

New Coeln, WI
St. Helena, NE
6 Messages October 26, 1874 – October 25, 1881 (German with some English translations)
Subjects: Request for aid with Euphorbia and Cuscuta in preparation of Prodromus florae Novae Coliniae.
Plants: Plants of Nebraska discussed with descriptions and disagreement with determinations of others: Euphorbia, Solidago, Oxybaphus, Helianthus, Chenopodium, Thalictrum, Viola, Phaseolus, Oenothera, Gaura, Archangelica, Pseudonismus, Veronia, Iva (drawing), Spiranthes.

Brunet, Ovide 1826-1876

Quebec, Canada
9 Messages December 26, 1862 – May 12, 1869 (French with English translations)
Subjects: Discussion of Abies species.
People: Filippo Parlatore, Karl Geyer, Asa Gray, Michel Durieu

Buchenau, Franz Georg Philip 1831-1906

Bremen, Germany
22 Messages September 9, 1865 – November 6, 1881 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Flora of Breman and East Friesland Islands.
Desire for exchange of specimens.
Elodea problems and possible solutions (in Europe).
Plants: Juncus from South America, Europe, Rocky Mts., Liebnau, 2nd German North Pole Expedition, New York, East Freisland Islands, species in Plantae Oregonensis, Himalayas. Alismaceae, Najadaceae, Convovulaceae, Luzula, Isoetes, Butomaceae, Echinodorus seeds, Sagittaria, Salicornia, Yucca, Rubus seeds, Pinus, Juncaceae monograph.
People: Great praise for Braun, Smithsonian, Janisch, Pfeiffer - "snail Pfeiffer", A. Gray (note in letter of 2-6-1868), Ascherson, Garcke, Prof. Dr. Grafe, Braun's fight with the Leopold Academy, Focke's publication, Rust, Dr. Schumacher, Dr. Boissier, Eichler working on Braun's paper, Gobel's criticism of Braun.

Buchinger, Jean Daniel 1803-1888

Strassburg, Germany
2 Messages June 2, 1868 – August, 1868 (German - with English translation)
Subjects: Engelmann’s trip to Strasbourg. Meeting with Frederic Weber to discuss cacti. Inquiry about Melanie Kalmbacher.

Buckley, Samuel Botsford 1809-1884

Black's Bluff, Allenton, AL; New York, West Dresden, NY; Shreveport, LA
15 Messages May 22, 1839 – February 28, 1860
Subjects: Desire for exchange of specimens, particularly fossils and shells for plant specimens.
Desire for rare plant specimens from St. Louis, Texas and Rocky Mts.
Collections in Texas.
Plants: Vitis which Engelmann wished him to collect, Cuscuta, Draba, Botschia.
People: Mr. Jean-Baptiste Duerinck (1809-1857) in Cincinnati, Andrew Buchanan in St. Louis, Dr. Prout, Dr.Short, Mr. Moses Curtis of North Carolina, Prof. Carpenter of Louisiana, Dr. Shumard - wish to spend summer with him in Texas, Lindheimer.
Places: Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee River, mountains of Tennessee, North Carolina, Virgina, and Florida.

Budd, Joseph Lancaster 1834-1904

Iowa State Agriculture College, Ames, IA
1 Message May 26, 1880
Subjects: North American Abies.

Burbridge, Frederick William Thomas 1847-1905

The Garden Office, London, [England]
1 Message August 22, 1876
Subjects: Agave

Burdick, Justin Herbert 1851-1939

Utica, WI
7 Messages March 21, 1881 – May 1, 1882
Subjects: Requests for identification of leek and Nevada specimens sent.

Burk, Issac 1816-1893

Philadelphia, [PA]
3 Messages October 27, 1869 – February 22, 1878
Plants: Cynodon dactylon, Ranunculus repens, Juncus, Godetia, Gilia, Liquidambar.

Bush, Benjamin Franklin 1858-1937

Independence, MO
8 Messages October 31, 1880 – August 6, 1883
Collections for Engelmann and possible publication of a Missouri Flora.
Plants:Physalis, Nasturtium, Cornus, Potentilla, Quercus, others.
(New species with habitat descriptions).
People: Rev. McMann, George W. Letterman, Cameron Mann, Mary Murtfeldt, Dr. Gustav Egeling.

Bush, Isidor 1822-1895

St. Louis; Bushberg Grape Nurseries Vineyards and Orchards, Brushberg, MO
5 Messages November 21, 1874 – November 7, 1882
Subjects: Agreement to use Engelmann's classification in catalogue.
Development of stock with different rootstock.
Plants:Clinton, Taylor, Bullet, Delaware - grape varieties.
People:Prosper Jules Berckmans (pomologist), McMurtie (chief U. S. chemist).

Butler, George Dexter 1850-1910

Little Rock, AR.; Atoka Indian Territory; Stringtown Indian Territory; Almont, IA; Oro Fino, Siskiyou County, CA
34 Messages April 21, 1873 – June 16, 1880
Subjects:Collections for Engelmann in the Southwest, Iowa and California.
Discussion of disagreement between Bessey and Arthur vs. Burgess and its effect on botany.
Collection lists with dates and descriptions of locations and plants.
Plants:Yucca, Tradescantia, Amianthium, Astragalus, Oxybaphus, Lathyrus, Sedum, Sagittaria, Amorpha, leguminous tress, Isoetes, list of oaks in vicinity, Plantago heterophylla - absent in region, Cooperia drummondii, Crataegus, Cercis, Nemastylis, Monarda, Hymenopappus, Vitis, Myosotis, Leptocaulis, Umbelliferae, Sertaria, Arenaria, Baptisia, Sayina, Galinus, Rhus, Luzula, Apoyon, Selenia, Penstemon, Corydalis, Prunus, Physalis species growing together, and Commelina collected or described in the Southwest.
Nelumbiaceae and Alisimaceae in area, Isoetes, Aesculus, Tradescantia, Callitriche, Taxus, Oxybaphus, honey locust, Coreopsis, Chenopodium, Salix and Populus and Vitis collected or described from the vicinity of Almont, Iowa.
(Names found only on collection lists are not given though much information is given on the lists).
People: Parry, Sargent and Engelmann's intended visit to California. Mr. Boott, Prof. Hayden, Rev. E. L. Green in Yreka, Siskiyou County, California.


Cabell, Edward Carrington 1816-1896

St. Louis Immigration Society, St. Louis, MO
2 Messages June 9, 1880 – July 5, 1880
Subjects: Desire for Engelmann papers on climatology for a report.

Campbell, Albert Henry 1826-1899

Department of the Interior, Pacific Wagon Road Office
7 Messages September 1, 1858 – January 18, 1859
Subjects: Engraving plates for publication of Cactaceae report.

Canby, William Marriot 1831-1904

Willmington, DE; Philadelphia, Chaddsford, PA; Appledore, Isles of Shoals, off Portsmouth, NH
78 Messages March 7, 1862 - November 27, 1866, May 10, 1867 - October 31,1874, January 30, 1875 - May 27, 1884
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and exchange of specimens.
Discussions of systemization and names.
Plants: Cuscuta,* Isoetes,* Pinus,* Sagittaria* and Juncus* from the Location Pine Barrens in New Jersey, New Castle County, eastern shore of Maryland. Isoetes from the Wimico River (Maryland), Belleville, Canada West, Cape Fear River, Pocono Mts., Stone Mt., St. John's River, Harpers Ferry, Colorado, Pike's, Peak, Stone Mt., Georgia, Baptisia,* particularly in Florida.Lemna, Carya* (Folder 3 only), Boltonia, from Mts. of Peru, Amianthus from Stone, Mt. Wolffia,* Equisetum, Solidago, Vitis, Saccharata, in Salisbury, Maryland. Pachistima from mountains of southwest Virginia, Taxodium from St. John's River, Potamogeton, Nuphar sagittarifolia from Eagle Island.
Habitat/species relationships with good plant descriptions of starred plant throughout series.
Map of New Castle area and description of geography of area in letter of 11-27-1866,
People: E. Durand (letter of 6-16-1866 addressed to Durand), Mr. Commons,* Mr. Durieu (?), Mr. Tatnall,* Mr. J. Macoun, Horace Mann, T. J. Allen, Mr. Bebb and Mr. Hall, Dr. Gray,* Mr. Boott, Bolander, Prof. Green, Prof. Porter, Dr. Robbins, Dr. Chester Dewey and Henry P. Sartwell, Dr. Chapman being deprived of position as collector of Port of Apalachicola, Florida; Fendler* (1872 -); Mellichamp; Parry; Mr. Redfield; Parlatore; Prof. Pumphrey (?).

Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de 1806-1893

Geneva, Switzerland
7 Messages January 26, 1859 – June 3, 1879 (French - English translations)
Subjects: Exchange and receipt of plants and written materials. Social unrest in Europe. Work on several monographs and books. Death of his daughter, Mrs. Richard Pietet. U.S. Civil War’s effects on correspodences. St. Louis bond payments. Damage to Quercus specimens. Loss of Euphorbia specimens. Complains about Mexican botanists.
Plants: Quercus, Cuscuta, Cactaceae, Dicotyledones, Begoniaceae, Euphorbia.
People: Gray, Choisy, Molly, Boissier, Baillon, Augustin de Candolle, Mueller, Dr. Miquel, Darwin, Casimir de Candolle,

Canfield, Colbert A., M.D. 1828-1872

Monterey, CA
2 Messages September 1, 1866 and March 23, 1871
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann of Coniferae,* Juncaceae, Yucca,* Cuscuta, Isoetes, Alisma, Nuphar, Cenphorbia in San Luis Obispo and Punta de los Pinos and San Antonio Mts.

Carey, John 1797-1880

New York, [NY]
7 Messages November 13, 1845 – November 13, 1852
Subjects: Discussion of determination of various plants and exchange of sets of specimens.

Carpenter, William Marbury 1811-1848

Jackson, LA
1 Message July 11, 1842
& Subjects: Desire to collect for Engelmann in Louisiana, particularly Cuscuta and Carex.

Carruthers, William 1830-1922

British Museum
1 Message September 16, 1869
Subjects: Sending Murray's tract to Engelmann.

Caruel, Teodoro 1830-1898

Prof. of Botany, Medical School, Florence [Italy]
Brighton, England, Artignano, near Leghorn [Italy]
16 Messages April 19, 1864 – August 14, 1880
Subjects: Work with morphology of fruit, especially Ribes.
Flora of Tuscany.
Suppression of medical school.
History of wild grape, wine grape diseases, etc.
Directorship of Botanic Garden in Florence.
Hooker/Ayrton difficulties at Kew Garden.
People: DeVisiani, Cesati, Prof. Braun, Rolli, Gray, Dr. Buchenan, Pedicino, Licapoli, Pasquale, Planchon, Mr. Baroni, Dr. Masters, Bell, Parlatore, Ducharte, LeConte, Bengham, Savj, Oliver, Beccari, Baker, Arcangeli.
Places: Botanic Gardens in Florence, Kew, Botanical Museum at Florence (director), University of Pisa.

Cary, Thomas Greaves 1824-1888

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA
2 Messages August 6, 1872 and September 6, 1872
Subjects: Information about shipment of cactus from Agassiz.
(List of desiderata in Engelmann's handwriting on back).

Case, Francis M.

Denver, CT [Colorado Territory]
2 Messages March 10, 1863 and April 7, 1863
Subjects: Meteorological observations and discussion of relationship between climate and plant type and growth in Colorado.

Case, L. B.

Seed and plant merchant, Richmond, IN
5 Messages October 21, 1878 – December 6 1880
Subjects: Request of help from Engelmann in correcting information in an issue of Case's Botanical Index, an article of history of Engelmann's trip through "wild country" and an article on Sagittaria.

Caspary, Robert 1818-1887

Poppelsdorf, Bonn [Germany], Koenigsberg [Germany]
17 Messages January 21, 1857 – March 18, 1880 (English and German with English translations EXCEPT 29-5-1858 and 17-2-1865)
Subjects: Lots of discussions about Nymphaea and Nuphar. Dissertation on microscopes. The illnesses of Mrs. Emmy Eichhorn and Alexander Braun. Illness spreading in Braun family. Caspary’s family and new son (February 10, 1865). Description of Alexander Braun’s death. Description of Mary Caspary’s (wife of Robert) death. Discussion of the future of Caspary’s 3 children: Mathilde, Hans, and Marie.
Plants: Nelumbo, Elodea, Nuphar, Nymphaea, Juncus, Isoetes,
People: Alexander Braun, Decaisen, Sir William Hooker, Mrs. Emmy Eichhorn, Parry, Mary Caspary, Cecile Mettenius,

Cassino, Samuel Edson 1856-1937

Naturalist's Agency, Salem, MA
7 Messages June 6, 1877 – November 17, 1883
Subjects: Request for exchange of publications, e.g. Eaton's Illustrations of Ferns on North America, Oaks of U. S.

Čelakovský, Ladislav Josef 1834-1902

Prag, Bohemia
1 Message September 20, 1882
Subjects: Exchange of publications. Discussion of Abies and Sequoia.

Cesati, Vincenso 1806-1883

Vercelli, Italy, Napoli, Italy, Rome, Italy
1 Message December 21, 1854 (English)
7 Messages May 29, 1855 – July, 1869 (German with English translation except January 27, 1869 and July 1869)
Subjects: Effect of frost on garden in Italy
Inability to reprint plate from Cupani’s Semphyd Siciliana
Advice given on using Taxodium distichum
Plants: Ensete, Juncus, Opuntia, and Stereocaulis vesuvianum
People: Desquate, General v. Gansenege, Licopoli
1 Message June 11, 1880 (French - with English Translation)
Subjects: Primarily discussion of Cuscuta species.

Chapman, Alvan Wentworth 1809-1899

Quincy, Apalichicola, FL; Empire City, CO; Southhampton, MA
28 Messages November 22, 1843 – February 6, 1883
Subjects: Collections for and exchanges with Engelmann.
Publications of Flora of Florida and South.
Discussions of determinations, naming and locations of plants.
Plants: Isoetes,* Cyperaceae, Xyris,* Leitneria, Nolina, Dianthera, Manthochloe,* Nuphar,* Juncus,* Nymphaea, Eriocaulon (?), Solidago,* Lemna,* Vitis, Yucca* Zostera,* Agave* Quercus,* Pteris (location) Euphorbia,* Callitriche,* Pinus*.Isopyrum, Pachysandra, Cacalia diversifolia, Gratiola floridana, - rare plants found on the rocky walls of Chipola River.

Chickering, John White 1831-1913

Deaf-Mute College, Washington, DC
1 Message January 31, 1879
Subjects: Request for copy of revision of genus Quercus.

Christ, D.

Basel, Switzerland
1 Message May 10, 1880 (German - no translation)

Clapp, Asahel 1792-1862

Chrm. Comm. of Indigenous Med. Botany, New Albany, [IN]
1 Message April 19, 1857
Subjects: Preparation of a synopsis of indigenous flowering medicinal plants of U. S.

Clary, Robert Emmet Capt. 1805-1890

U. S. Army Assistant Quartermaster, New Orleans, [LA]
3 Messages September 11, 1851 – November 19, 1851
Subjects: Expenses for Fendler expedition.

Cleveland, Daniel 1838-1929

San Diego, CA
3 Messages October 24, 1875 – July 30, 1882
Subjects: Request for identification of specimens; copy of Mexico Boundary Cactaceae.

Clinton, George William 1807-1885

Buffalo, Albany, Luzerne, Warren, NY
21 Messages. May 15, 1862 – December 23, 1865
27 Messages September 4, 1866 – January 8, 1879
Subjects: Seeking Engelmann's help with the herbarium of the Buffalo Society of Natural Science.
Discussion of speciation, collecting and exchanges of plants.
Plants: Cuscuta,* Cyperus, Najas minor,* Panicum, Isoetes,* Eriocaulon,* Atirplex, Marsilea,* Parnassia,* Potamogeton, Polenium, Hynum, Eleodianensis (pygmy), Sagina, Artemisia, Scirpius.
People: Dr. Gray, Mr. Gillman, David F. Day, Mr. Peck (State Botanist), Boott, Mr. Riley (entomologist), Ravenel, Kellogg.
Places: Collections at: Schuyler Lake, Catskill Mountains,* Lake Superior County, Lake Placid (by Lesquereux), David F. Day, Luzerne (20 Mil. above Saratoga), Saratoga, small lake near Kichfield Spring of Niagara River, Hudson River at Luzerne, Catskill Ltn. House (vicinity of)*.

Coffin, John Huntington Crane 1815-1890

Home Secretary, National Academy of Science, Washington, DC
1 Message April 30, 1879
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to serve as regional representative on Committee for cooperation with National Board of Health.

Collet, Oscar Wilkes 1821-1904

Rooms, Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, MO
1 Message December 8, 1870
Subjects: Question on natural history, especially the St. Louis area.

Collet, T. A., Dr.

Decorah, IA
1 Message May 5, 1867
Subjects: "Resume" for application for a position as a botanist.

Collier, George H. 1827-1916

Eugene City, OR
1 Message October 25, 1880
Subjects: Discussion of determination of Pinus species. Seed exchange.
Place: Headwaters of Middle Fork of Willamette River.

Commons, Albert 1829-1919

Centerville, Faulkland, DE
19 Message April 11, 1866 – November 8, 1882
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and exchanges with Engelmann, particularly Juncus in 1866 and Quercus in 1877-1882.
Plants: Juncus,* Plantago,* Isoetes,* Coreopsis,* Scirpius,* Quercus,* Carya, and Parcina.
People: Mr. Canby,* Prof. Sargent, Prof. Watson.
Places: New Castle County, Salisbury, Shelpot Creek, Florida, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey, Delaware state line. Most include detailed habitat descriptions.

Congdon, Joseph Whipple 1834-1910

Visalia, CA
1 Message January 5, 1882
Subjects: Requests for determinations and verification of determinations.

Connor, Richard

St. Louis, MO
3 Messages August 29, 1856 – November 21, 1856
Subjects: Engraving of plates, probably Roetter drawings for report.
People: John H. Clark, Lieut. N. Michler, Major Emory, Mr. Rutter.

Cooley, Dennis 1787-1860

Washington, Macomb County, MI
3 Messages June 4, 1848 – September 4, 1848
2 Messages June 12, 1848 – October 10, 1848(Photocopies of letters from Engelmann to Cooley)
Plants: Chara, Carex, collected.<

Cope, E. D. 1840-1897

Philadelphia, PA
1 Message May 1, 1877
Subjects: Seeking information about species of native grapes.
People: Dr. Jayone Batallia Ries, Royal Agr. College of Portugal at Lisbon.

Corda, August Carl Josef 1809-1849

Galveston, TX
1 Message May 28, 1849 (German – with English translation)
Subjects: Willing to assist Rev. Curtis in his research concerning mushrooms, but has conditions and is limited on time.
People: M.A. Curtis.

Cornwell, Giles Hamlin 1819 - 1849

Waukesha, WI
4 Messages October 16, 1848 – May 23, 1849
Subjects: Specimen exchange. List of plants with collection locations.
Plants: Cactaceae
People: Mr. Mead, Mr. Lapham, Dr. Barratt, Emory, Eaton and Wright, Wm. P. Lynde, Lt. Fremont, Morgan, Dr. Short.
Places: Augusta, Illinois; Rocky Mts.; California; New Mexico; Louisville; Wisconsin; West Illinois; and Fulton, Illinois.

Cosson, Ernest Saint Charles 1819-1889

Paris, France; 19 Rue de Grand Chantier (Marais) French with English translations
2 Messages February 24, 1864 – April 9, 1870
Subjects: Description of shipment of plants from France, Algeria, and the Canary Islands; requested Engelmann to send several publications to include in a revision of his Prodromus Florae Algeriensis; interested in Engelmann’s research of Conifer; announced Mr. Gay’s death. Request to assist Mr. Bureau on his visit to the U.S.
People: Mr. Bossange, Mr. Perrandiere, Mr. Hall, Mr. Harbor, Mr. Bureau

Coues, Elliot 1842-1899

Fort Whipple, Arizona Territory; Washington, DC
9 Messages June 20, 1865 – April 19, 1866
South Carolina University, Columbia, SC
Carolina (Post Surgeon, 6th Inf. H. Q.)
4 Messages July 10, 1866 – December 15, 1867
Subjects: Collector of flowering plants for Engelmann. Palmer and Coues agree to give their cacti collections to Engelmann in return for identifications and publication of results. Publication of natural history works as a result of collections of mammals, reptiles, birds, etc., particularly Natural History of Arizona.
Plants: Leptocereus,* Platopuntia,* Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Arctostaphylos, Obione, Agave, Oaks, Cinchona, Opuntia, Fouquieria.
People: Dr. Palmer, Dr. Theodore Gill, Prof. Baird, Dr. Packard, Prof. E. D. Cope, Dr. Allen, Prof. LeConte, Mr. Zimmerman, Dr. R. W. Gibbes, Capt. Anderson, Smithsonian, St. Louis Academy of Science.
Places: "Forests of the Giants", south of Prescott, near Fort Whipple; Ft. Wingate.

Coulter, John

Hanover, IN
12 Messages September 1, 1876 – May 24, 1883
Subjects: Developments of publication of Botanical Gazette.
Requests for papers to be published in the Botanical Gazette.

Cratty, Robert Irwin 1853-1940

2 Messages January 7, 1882 – April 1, 1882
Subjects: Sending Sagittaria to Engelmann. Exploring for tubers and roots.
People: Prof. J. C. Arthur of Charles City
Plants: Sagittaria

Crawshaw, Edmund

1 Message December 19, 1877
Subjects: Pear blight.

Crépin, François, 1830-1903

4 Messages July 16, 1878 – December 8, 1882 French – no translation

Curtis, Rev. Moses Ashley 1849-1871

Washington, Hillsborough, NC; Boston, MA; Society Hill, SC
19 Messages November 9, 1840 – December 30, 1848
Subjects: Exchange of flowering plants with Engelmann and European botanists.

19 Messages May 6, 1849 – April 22, 1871
Subjects: Fungus collections and identification of fungus diseases of grapes, etc. for Engelmann and the sale of his herbarium. Return of unwanted plant, discussion of two of his own species, discussion of naming species, Ravenel’s Fungi (book?), contact with A. Chapman, Flora through Rosaceae.
Plants: Cuscuta* from Wilmington, North Carolina and Boston, Massachusetts; Solidago,* Aster,* Euphorbia, Chara,* Lepidanche appressa from the Yadkin River and Catawba River and mountains east of Blue Ridge, Cuscuta* with species descriptions and flowering dates, Chara,* Urtica, Sagittaria, Alisma and Sagittaria distinction, Pinus,* Aristolochia, Euphorbia, Plantago species distinctions, Yucca, Opuntia, Psilotum, Trichomones, "cedar balls", Botrytis on grape. Podostemaceae, Dwarf Frichmaies?, Ilex, I. Amelanchier, A. Canadensis, P. Maritima, Lycium Europeum, Carolinensis, Frierian & Schweinitzian species, Rosaceae.
People: Prof. C. W. Short, Sir Wm. Hooker, Mssrs. Carstens and Schultze, Dr. A. W. Chapman, Lindheimer's plants, Prof. Gray, A. Braun, De Caisne, Michaux, Leveille, M. Corda leaving for Texas to superintend estate of Prince Collorede, Silliman, Ravenel, Fendler and Wright collections, M. Lenormand, Boissier or Duby at Geneva, Mr. Berkeley of England, Dr. McMasters of Missouri, J. C. Webb, Dr. McRee. Peters, Ravenel, A. Chapman, Prof. Gibbes.
Places: Europe, Africa.

Curtiss, Alan Hiram 1845-1907

Liberty, Beford Co., VA; Tallyrand Place, near Jacksonville, FL
10 Messages August 27, 1872 – April 15, 1882
Subjects: Planning a catalogue and wishes Engelmann's help with Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota.
Comparisons with Mann's, Gray's and Wood's catalogues.
Broadhead's list of Missouri plants.
Collections for and exchanges with Engelmann.
Manuscript prospectus of catalogue. (4-8-1873)
Canard of the Natural Bridge.
Shipping information.
Torrey Bulletin.
Need for Trans-Mississippi plants.
Plants: Galium,* Juncus, Yucca, Thlaspi arvense, Euphorbia,* Heliotropium, Malvastrum, Lemna synonyMs., Boltonia, Quercus,* Agave,* Phlox, Acerates, Anemone, Cheilanthes (new), Chrysobalanus, Smilax, peculiar grass (Panicum?), Pinus, Commelina, Vitis, Tradescantia, Labrusca, Pteris, Tsuga, Monanthochloe, sisal hemp introduction, Alismaceae, Sagittaria*.
People: Hooker, Broadhead, Dr. Watt, Dr. Parry, errors in Watson's report, Canby (tried not to help Curtiss); Prof. Porter, Lesquereux and Leidtz to join Hayden expedition; Prof. Eaton engraving specimens for new work; Prof. Gray, Geo. D. Butler, Dr. Gattinger's Flora plants, Lindheimer, C. F. Austin, Chapman.
Places: Hudson's Bay area, Canada and Tidewater, Virginia - Thlaspiarvense Indian River,* Bay Bisquayne,* Sanford, Lake Monroe,* Charlotte Harbor, Dumbarton Swamp and St. John's, Cape Sable, Cape Canaveral, Reff Keys, Mosquito Inlet, Apalichicola, Potomac.


Daniels, Louisa M. -1890

Rochester, NY
1 Message June 19, 1854
Subjects: Whereabouts of Hayden.

Darlington, William 1782-1859

West Chester, PA
8 Messages March 28, 1845 – December 22, 1859
Subjects: Introduction of Joseph Hough as agent for specimens.
Request for specimens and exchange.
Plants: Euphorbia, Scirpius.
People: Dr. Gray, Carey and Hart, Nicholas Riehl, Henry Beeson Flanner, Howard Darlington.
Places: St. Louis, New Jersey, Valley of the Mississippi, Philadelphia, Texas, Missouri, Ohio, western territories.

Davenport, George Edward 1833-1907

Boston and Madford, MA
4 Messages May 29, 1879 – April 4, 1882
Subjects: Request for help to establish authenticity of species in his catalogue.
Plants: Pellia, ferns, Isoetes, A. trifoliatum, vascular cryptogams, Acrogens*.
People: Mr. Redfield, Dr. Ludwig, Howell, Prof. Eaton, Mr. Boott, Curtiss, Mr. Baker.
Places: Missouri, western states, Texas, Florida, Puerto Rico.

Davesne fl. 1835-1872

Paris, [France]
2 Messages October 20, 1857 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Request confirmation that plate proofs were received.

Davis, John Jefferson 1852-1937

Vinton, IA
1 Message November 2, 1876
Subjects: Locations of populations of Euphorbia and Cuscuta.

Dawson, George Mercer 1849-1901

Geologist and Botanist, B. N. A. Boundary Commission, McGill College, Montreal, Canada.
Geol. Survey of Canada, Victoria, British Columbia
Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey, Ottawa, Canada
6 Messages March 22, 1875 – April 30, 1882
Subjects: Request for determinations of rushes.
Environmental ranges of Pinus,* Abies,* Quercus.*
Possibility of distribution map and article on trees in the Northwest.
People: Prof. Macoun, Dr. Selwyn, Sargent.
Places: Rocky Mountains,* British Columbis, Chilcatin and Blackwater Rivers, Frages Peace River, Hudson's Hope, Vancouver Island Cascades, Red River, Salmon River, Caribou Gold Region, Athabaska River, Saskatchewan River.

Day, David Fisher 1829-1900

Buffalo, NY
1 Message May 21, 1865
Subjects: Plants of Buffalo and vicinity

Decaisne, Joseph 1807-1882

Paris, France
8 Messages September 19, 1841 – January 29, 1880 (French - with English translations)
Subjects: Request contact of Cryptomany experts. Requests fossil plants. Seeds from the Rocky Mountains, California. Cold winter destroying plants.
People: Mr. Hering, Mr. Armgniare, Lenormand, Dr. Léveillé, Mr. Borange, Elias Durand, Mr. Braun, Mr. Sargent
Plants: Cuscuta, Graminaceae, Oaks, Cacti, Agave, Yucca, Vitis.

Delano, Columbus 1809-1896

Secretary of Documents, Department of Interior, Washington, DC
2 Messages February, 1875 – May, 1875
Subjects: Lists of publications sent to Engelmann.

De Mier, John R.

Chester, IL
1 Message April 30, 1880
Subjects: Request for names of collectors of archeological and geological specimens.

De Smet, Arthur -1926

Ghent [Belgium]
1 Message January 25, 1877
Subjects: Request for purchase of succulents.

De Smet, Louis 1813-1887

Ghent, Belgium
1 Message November 30, 1864
Subjects: Request for plants of various cacti and Agave.

Dewey, Chester 1784-1867

Rochester, NY
1 Message April 2, 1856
Subjects: Sending articles about Hayden's expedition.

Diffenbaugh, Elias -1870

Philadelphia, PA
1 Message April 23, 1868
Subjects: Appreciation to Engelmann for sending copy of North American Junci.

Dimmick, L. Norton 1823-1884

Santa Barbara, CA
1 Message March 18, 1878
Subjects: Collections of plants particularly Abies bracteata in Santa Lucia Mts.


New York, NY
1 Postcard April 21, 1877
Subjects: Shipping information.

Dixon, Brandt van Blarcom 1850-1941

St. Louis, MO
1 Message February 23, 1876
Subjects: Engelmann's annoyance at condensation of meteorological article in the report. (Condensation done by Prof. Riley's request).

Doggett, W. E. (William Elkanah), 1820-1876

Chicago, [IL]
1 Message May 2, 1868
Subjects: Request for delivery of book to St. Louis Academy of Science.

Douglas, Robert 1813-1897

R. Douglas & Sons, Waukegan Nurseries, Waukegan, IL; Farlinton, KS
20 Messages July 9, 1878 – February 4, 1880
Subjects: Experiments in adaptability of various evergreens to Kansas and other dry climates with a comparison of seeds from Colorado and Pacific Northwest.
C. S. Sargent questions Siler's judgment and integrity.
Discussion of Barney's pamphlet on the merits of catalpa for the West.
Seed and plant collections for European markets.
Plants: Abies,* Juniperus,* catalpa, Picea,* - species distinctions and adaptability.
People: Andrew L. Siler, C. S. Sargent,* Mr. Brandigee,* C. C. Parry,* J. T. Allen of Omaha and Boston, Mr. Whitney (Alexis Randolph Whitney 1824-1897 links [1] [2]) of Franklin Grove, Illinois, Mr. William Eliot Barnes (1832-1925) link [1] of Vinland, Kansas transplanted firs from Colorado. Nurserymen in England and Thompson Clarke Maxwell (1822-1908) of Geneva using deceptive practices; Dougla,* Mr. Barber wrote inaccurate report, J. A. Warder,* J. A. Kennicott (John Albert) 1802-1863 link [1] [2], Mr. Thomas Meehan, Mr. Mecropas, Peter Lawrence Nursery in Edinbourgh, E. E. Barney,* George Johnson, C. Bolle of Berlin, Bd. of Agriculture and Premier of Australia, Conservator of Forest in Penjal District of Lahore, East Indies, J. H. Masters (James Harris) 1819-1909 link [1] [2] of Nebraska, John C. Teahaus of Carthage, Missouri, J. T. Allen; D. Soteld, chief engineer, found catalpa logs outlasted oak as railroad ties.
Places: Wasatch Mts., Colorado, Kansas, Pacific Northwest, Snowy Range, Colorado,* forest of New York, ranch in Utah, Douglas and Sargent in Charleston, Missouri.

Drake, Daniel 1785-1852

Cincinnati, OH; Louisville, KY
6 Messages March 30, 1847 – December 20, 1848
Subjects: Publication of meteorological data collected along 39th parallel by Engelmann and Dr. Ray, Dr. Hempstead, and Dr. Hildreth. Capt. Fuller, engineer in the Office of Col. Long working with him.
People: Dr. Ray (Joseph) 1807-1855, Dr. G. S. B. Hempstead (Giles Samuel Booth) 1794-1883, and Dr. Hildreth (Samuel Prescott) 1783-1863, Capt. C. A. Fuller, engineer in the Office of Col. Long

Droege & Co. (Oscar Droege)

1 Message December 26, 1883 (German – English translation)
Subjects: Request for information on various plants, especially Agave.
People: H. Graf at Solms., J. von Sachs, Dr. Schilds of Ehrenberg - collector in area of Mexico where Droege is collecting.

Drude, Oscar (Carl Georg Oscar) 1852-1933

1 Message October 18, 1875 (German – with English translation)
Original letter missing.
Drude to Engelmann
Subjects: Cover letter for sending publication to Engelmann concerning palm trees.
People: Mr. Wendland, Director of Royal Gardens at Hanover; Dr. Wappäus.
Places: New Netherlands.

Dubrueil, E.

Montpellier, France
1 Message December 31, 1873 (French – with English translation)
Subjects: Request for collaboration in Review of Natural Sciences.
People: Professor Planchon.

Dudley, William Russell 1849-1911

Botanical Laboratory at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
3 Messages December 22, 1879 – May 10, 1883
Subjects: Discussion of species of Vitis; Cuscuta*; Mitchella also mentioned.

Dunglison, Robley 1798-1869

Phildelaphia, [PA]
1 Message August 30, 1836
Subjects: Desires loan of specimen for examination.
People: Prof. Muller

Dunn, George Washington 1814-1905

San Francisco, [CA]
1 Message February 1, 1877
Subjects: Mailing cones and seeds of Abies.
Planned collections in the Gulf of California.

Durand, Alfred B.

Woodlawn Mansion [France]
1 Message July 22, 1873
Subjects: Durand's father's collection of plants willed to the Garden of plants of Paris.

Durand, Elias Magliore 1794-1873

Philadelphia and Germantown, PA; Paris, [France]
1 Message December 6, 1845 Durand to Asa Gray
Subjects: Not receiving botanical specimens. Looking forward to Gray’s North American Flora.

32 Messages August 8, 1846 – November 13, 1864
27 Messages February 2, 1865 – October 21, 1870
Subjects: Exchange of information and plants for collections. Durand's need for Lindheimer collections. Formula against insects. (10-5-1846) Preparation of special North American herbarium by Academy of Science. Offer of herbarium to Engelmann. Political situation following the Civil War. Franco-Prussian War. (10-24-1870). Durand's herb. transferred to Garden of plants in Paris.
People: Nuttall's Arkansas and Oregon plants, expedition to Oregon and California, penchant for applying different names to the same plant, Pinus collections, Isoetes collections, itinerary (11-8-1866). Lindheimer's collections*, Rafinesque's herbarium and its awful condition, his craziness and ability to create many species from one specimen. Gray and Engelmann sending an expedition to Santa Fe, Gray's new edition, cooperation in exchange of specimens, Nicollet's Northwestern and Northeastern plants, Dr. Hale's Louisiana plants, Mr. Beyrich's Oregon plants, Mr. Gambel, Fendler,* Dr. Huttner's son, Dr. Prof. Rayburn, Mr. Th. T. James,* Alfred Bujac, Dr. Juergens, Dr. Gordon, E. Hilgard, Chas Wright collections, Wislizenus - excellence of his Santa Fe collections. Introduction for Engelmann to Decaisne, Gay and Groenland. Mr. Boissier, Engelmann's brother's collection of Utah plants, Jacques Gay's work on Isoetes,* Dr. Hunt, Prof. Durieux of Bordeaux, Dr. Kane's Polar plants, Mr. Curtis, Mr. Trego of Philosophical Society, Dr. Parry's work on Isoetes, Mr. Bulkley, Mr. Fiot* as collector and friend, Prof. Porter,* Dr. Vasey, Canby,* excellence of Dr. Short's Herbarium, Michaux's plants, Mr. Hall, Mr. Tatnall, Harbour and Hall, Mr. Winder's southern sympathies with a discussion of politics, Prof. Brown (Braun?), James the bryologist, Dr. Pickering,* Briges (Pickering and Briges were Nuttall's assistants), Buist's work in Philadelphia. Dr. Hale, Dr. Mead, Mr. Wolle, and Canby's collections of Callitriche. Rothrock,* Leidy*; Leidy, Charles & Aubrey Smith and Porter's expedition to the Great Lakes, Alexander's Co. American plants, Baldwin's Paraguay plants, Robert Killvington [1],* Bigelow and Parry, Geyer collections in Nicollet's expedition, Walther,* Mr. S. Poewll of Newport, Griffiths, Le Conte, Rev. Blake of Gilmanton (?), N. H., Barker, Mr. Chas. Smith,* Prof. Ennis' collections on the Pasaic River, Mr. Boott, Mr. Couren, Dr. Gideon Lincecum,* Dr. Bolander and Brewer's collections, Prof. Alfphonse Wood,* Riddell's Wolffia. Austin's dispute with Lesquereux, Sullivant and James. Maj. LeConte and Buckley, Mr. Scott, Lincecum's journey to Tuxpan,* Dr. Gibbons, deaths of Prof. Dewey and Sartwell, Dr. Robbins, Dr. Chapman's invoice of Desiderata; plants for Mr. Collier's herbarium collected by Baldwin, Ware, Blodgett, Elliot, etc. Kellogg's Alaskan collection given to Academy by Dr. Davidson of Coast survey, Dr. B. Smith, Mr. Spach.
Places: Collections of Delaware River,* Schuylkill River,* Darby, Pa.,* Catskill Mountains,* Pocono Mts., Lancaster,* Wilmington, Lehigh River (called Lecha River in some collections),* Bethlehem,* mountain lake in Wayne County,* island above Bethlehem bridge, Lake Winnipesaukee,* Morristown*.

Dyer, Sir William Turner Thiselton 1843-1929

Royal Gardens at Kew, London [England]
1 Message September 1, 1876
Subjects: List of Yucca cultivated at Royal Gardens.


Eaton, Daniel Cady 1834-1895

New York, NY; New Haven, CT
8 Messages January 23, 1863 – April 19, 1882
Subjects: Exchange of specimens with Engelmann, fruiting of Yucca filamentosa in New Haven, observation of Pronuba on plants, gratitude for Engelmann's publication.
Plants: Chara, Isoetes, Yucca,* Missouri and Arkansas ferns, Woodwardia, Massila, Chailanthes, Pinus, Selaginella*.
Places: Location near Whitneyville where fresh water fluctuates with tide.

Egloffstein, Frederick W. 1824-1898

Washington D.C.; Philadelphia
7 Messages September 22, 1854 – August 13, 1861 (German with English translation)
Subjects: Description of the city of Washington D.C. Comments on Congress and political issues. Discussion of his new technique of “topographic landscape painting.” Comments on Col. John C. Fremont’s presidential candidancy (1856).
People: Fremont

Ehinger, George Earnest 1828 - 1908

Keokuk, IA
1 Message September 14, 1875
Subjects: Request for assistance in identification of plants.

Eichler, Dr. August Wilhelm 1839-1887

Munich, [Germany]; Graz; Austria; Kiel, Berlin, [Germany] (German with English translations)
9 Messages June 7, 1869 – July 20, 1882
Subjects: Publication of Flora Brasiliensis and difficulties in funding and obtaining specimens, particularly Cactaceae.
Request for translation into English on conifer work.
Mrs. Mettenius' biography of her father (Braun).
Appointment to Graz.
Transfer to Kiel as director of a "disgusting" botanical garden.
Braun's anniversary celebration.
His "Blüthendiagramme."
People: Gray, Nathanael Pringsheim, Reichenbach, Jr., Hofmeister, Hegelmaier, Dr. Peckolt (Rio de Janeiro), Dr. Fritz Müller (Itajahy, Sao Paulo), Warming (collector in Copenhagen), Martius, Dr. A. Glaziou (director of Passeio Publico in Rio), Joaquin Carrea de Mello (Campinas, Sao Paulo), Marcgrav, Pisa, Kate Wood, Dr. Chapman, Dr. Flügel, Brazilian emperor and empress (1876), Dr. Flügel of Campinas, provincia de S. Paulo, Brazil, Prof. Fouche.
Plants: Loranthaceae particularly Arceuthobium and Viscum.

Ellacombe, Henry Nicholoson 1821-1916

Bitton Vicarage, Bristol, Kew, England
6 Messages September 8, 1876 – December 26, 1876
n.d. Letter from J. G. Baker to Ellacombe
Subjects: Interest in exchanging specimens.
Discussions of various Yucca and Agave characteristics.

Emory, William Hemslex 1811-1887

Ft. Leavenworth, [KS]; Washington, DC; Steamer "Northerner" off Cuba, Frontera near El Paso, TX
30 Messages June 4, 1846 - August 30, 1854, December 25, 1855 - July 28, 1857

Paris, (France); Frankfort on the Main (Germany)
3 Messages July 8, 1857 – December 15, 1857 From Engelmann
Subjects: Exchange of information, drawings, proofs of publication of report of Rocky Mountain expedition and Mexican Boundary Survey.
Parry's subsequent expedition to collect desiderata of Cactaceae.
Plants: Cactaceae, Pitahaya,* (Cereus giganteus), Larrea mexicana, pines, Fouquiera. cabbage trees of the south, Cereus sp.*
People: Mrs. Hunt, Capt. Turner,* Col. S. S. Abest, Dr. Torrey, Mr. Stanley, sketches of Gila River area, Dr. Wislizenus, Mr. Brockenborough of the patent office, Prof. Alexander Dallas Bache, Dr. Halsted, Dr. Parry, Mrs. Wright, Gen'l Campbell, Schott, W. Bartlett, Bigelow, Paulus Roetter.

Engelmann, Henry 1831-1889

M. E. with M & H Zinc Co., Lasalle, IL
1 Message May 25, 1882 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Visiting Belleville and area.

Engelmann, Th. Wilhelm 1843-1909

Leipzig [Germany]
1 Message December 20, 1877 (German - English translation)
Subjects: A discussion about Schulte’s Ageration and 2 books.

Engler, Heinrich Gustav Adolph 1844-1930

Kiel, Botanic Garden [Germany]; Munich, [Germany]
3 Messages December 21, 1879 – March 1, 1880 (one postcard dated October ?) (German – English translation)
Subjects: Request for contribution from Engelmann for yearbooks of plant geography, plant history and scientific systematics.

Ennis, Jacob 1807-1890

Philadelphia, [PA]
1 Message December 2, 1866
Subjects: Gives location and habitat description of collection point where specimen of Isoetes was found. Suggests that Engelmann add rivers to Isoetes habitat. Locations in Newark and Passaic River. Contains a note from E. Durand agreeing with Ennis.

d'Eprémesnil, Jacques Duval 1827-1891

Societe D'Acclimatation, Paris [France]
3 Messages September 25, 1882 – May 24, 1883 (French - English translation)
Subjects: A request to purchase cacti and agave plants from Engelmann.

Erni, Henri

Patent Office, Washington, DC (German – English translation)
1 Message October 31, 1967
Subjects: Request for results of Engelmann's research on grapes and wine for planned publication on fermentation and chemistry of wine.

Espy, James Pollard 1785-1860

Meteorologist, U. S. Navy Dept., Washington, DC
3 Messages January, 1842 – January, 1852
Subjects: Request for meteorological information and discussion of barometric fluctuation and theory he had developed around 1840.


Farlow, William Gilson 1844-1882

Cambridge, [MA]
12 Messages October 23, 1858 – February 14, 1882
Subjects: Request for aid in identification of specimens and information about pathogens on Prunus, onions, grapes, etc.
Sends specimens of stomach fluid from ulcer patient which contains Sarcina ventriculi and Saccharomyces apiculatus.
Plants: Phoma, Sphaeria, Koeleria, Lactuca, Silphium, grape rot and mildew, onion mildew, Euphorbia, Juncus, Cymodocea, Characeae, Polypogon, Nitella,* Isoetes,* Prunus, Cymodoceae, fungus on Claytonia.
People: Stahl, Ellis, Bolander, Agassiz, Gray, de Bary, Nordstedt, Halsted, Ravenel, Lindheimer, Wright, Braun, Kutzing.
Places: Newport; Hammond's Pond, Boston; Lentux Canal; collections in Texas, Mexico, St. Luis Potosi and Bermuda.

Faxon, Charles Edward 1846-1918

262 Purchase Street, Boston, MA
1 Message September 27, 1877

Jamaica Plain and Brookline, MA
2 Messages November 29, 1881 – January 3, 1883
Subjects: Request for Engelmann papers and his research with Sagittaria,* at the Bussey Institute, also collected by Mr. Robinson in the Ipswitch River, near Salem, Massachusetts.
Subjects: Sending specimens, description of specimens sent; growth pattern, location, water usage, size, fruiting, flowering, seasons.
Plants: Sagittaria, Potamoyiton natans, P. louschites, P. spirillus, Naias, S. variabilis, Phyllodia.
Places: Charles and Nefonset Rivers.

Fendler, Augustus 1813-1883

Fort Leavenworth; Santa Fe, [NM]; Weston [WY]; New Orleans; Camden, AR.; Memphis, TN; Colonia Tovar.
20 Messages August 19, 1846 – December 16, 1854
Subjects: Descriptions of travel, forts, living conditions, supply problems with army. Possibility of manufacture of matches for profit.
Difficulties with obtaining money enough to survive.
Losing all supplies and equipment in a flood on way to Ft. Laramie.
Narrative of trip to Charges on "Mt. Vernon."
Starting chemical oil business.
Cultivation of Lepachys, Oenothera and Helianthus in Arkansas (seeds from Texan collection).
Meteorological observations.* (Tables in many letters)
Descriptions of trip to Caracas, Venezuela and living conditions and surroundings in Colonia Tovar.

Cambridge, MA; Philadelphia, PA; Allentown, MO
21 Messages March 19, 1856 – July 24, 1871
Subjects: Description of trip from Caracas.
Sale and accounts of Venezuelan plants.
Accounts with Engelmann.*
Collections for Prof. Henry of the Smithsonian. (Obtaining meteorological instruments from Henry.)
Collecting mosses for Dr. Sullivant and lichens for Tuckerman.
Meteorological observations.* (Tables)
Gray's arrangement for Fendler to work for him in herbarium and Garden.
Financial difficulties.
Theories on heat. (12-25-1865)
Selling land in Allentown.

Gumbinnan, [Germany]; Philadelphia, PA; Seaford and Wilmington, DE; Port of Spain, Trinidad, W. I.
24 Messages January 15, 1872 - July 20, 1882
Subjects: Description of trip to Europe; climate in Gambinnan.
Meeting Prof. Braun and Caspary and description of the Konigsberg Botanical Garden.
Engelmann's discovery of Yucca pollination by moths.
Church troubles in Germany.
Description of living arrangements and weather in Philadelphia.
Meehan's trip and planned itinerary.
Description of Seaford; cost of living.
Quercus collections and determinations.* (5-16-1876)
Collecting in Trinidad, especially on Tucuche Mt.
Description of people and life in Trinidad; statistics; census.
Fruit cultivation in Trinidad.
Cereus peruvianus cultivation.*
Discussions with Henry Prestoe, Supt. of local botanical garden.

Fenzl, Eduard 1808-1879

Curator of the K.K. Hofnaturalien Cabinet in Vienna
6 Messages June 24, 1846 – May 24, 1872 (German with English translations)
Subjects: A loan of Cuscuta from the Vienna Museum to Engelmann. Request grass specimens be sent in exchange. A visit to Vienna by Engelmann. The engagement of Hermine Fenzl to Gustav Tschermak. The death of Fenzl’s son, Braun, and Georg Mettenius. Julius Engelmann’s visit. Marriage of Adelinda Fenzl to Prof. Weiss. Appreciation of the Yucca seeds received.
People: Hermine Fenzl, Adelinda Fenzl, Gustav Tschermak, Braun, Mettenius, J. Engelmann, Edmund Weiss.
Plants: Yucca, Cuscuta

Flagg, Willard Cutting 1829-1878

Secretary of the American Pomological Society, Moro, IL
3 Messages April 26, 1875 – October 25, 1877
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's help in classifying the grape, finding the origin of apples, publication of an Encyclopedia of American Agriculture.
People: James H. Chambers, George Husmann, Marshall P. Wilder.

Flint, Wm. Francis 1849-1904

Hanover, NH
1 Message March 23, 1877
Subjects: Sending his Mt. Washington collections to Engelmann.
Descriptions of Abies and Betula, habitat and specific locations.
Prof. E. Tuckerman, Thos. Porter, O'Hare, Tuckerman's Ravine, and Passumpsic River.

Focke, Wilhelm Olbers 1834-1922

Bremen, Germany (German with English translation)
1 Message May 2, 1879
Subjects: Propagation of Rubus and determination of specimens.

Foerste, August Frederick 1862-1936

Dayton, OH
1 Message January, 1880
Subjects: Request for classification of plants.

Forwood, Wm. H. 1838-1914

Surgeon, U. S. Army, Ft. Omaha
1 Message September 15, 1882
Subjects: Request for confirmation of his identifications of collections made in Yellowstone National Park, Firehole River and Mt. Washburn.

Fournel, Dominique Henry Louis, 1813-1848

Metz [France]
1 Message June 19, 1840 (French - English Translation)
Subjects: Exchange of specimens.
People: Alfred Malherbe

Fournier, Eugene Pierre Nicholas 1834-1884

Soc. Botanique de France, Paris, France
2 Messages August 20, 188? to March 22, 1869 (French - no translation)
Subjects: Fourier is in charge of enumeration of Mexican plants for the scientific commission and requests help from Engelmann.

Fowler, James 1829-1923

Instructor of Natural Science, Fredericton, N. B.
3 Messages December 27, 1878 – April 6, 1880
Subjects: Gratitude for specimens of Quercus alba, Quercus rubra and spruce.

Frank, Dr. T.

Cincinnati, OH
1 Message March 10, 1835
Subjects: Sends Engelmann cacti specimens and Proromus flor rastadientsis.
Request for plants to be sent to Dr. Schott.

Franzoni, Alberto 1816-1886

Bellingona, Canton, Ticino, Switzerland; [Milano, Italy]
1 March March 5, 1858
Subjects: Gratitude for Civic Museum in Milan and request for introduction to other collectors in the U. S.
Plants: cryptogames, ferns, mushrooms, liverworts, lichens, lycopodium
Places: Milan

Fremont, John Charles 1813-1890

Washington City; Steamer Cortes at sea; New York, [NY]
7 Messages August 19, 1848 – January 12, 1890
Subjects: Request for meterological information from Engelmann.
Transactions with Major Lennard.
People: Dr. Torrey, Dr. Gray, Dr. Wislizenus, Schreiber, Max F. Stroebel, Wm. Coles Morris, Wm. Egglofstein, topographer.

Fresenius, Dr. Johann Baptist Georg Wolfgang 1808-1866

Frankfurt on the Main, Germany
3 Messages August 19, 1834 – March 27, 1847
Subjects: Exchange of specimens, particularly Cuscuta; Cultivation of plants grown from seeds sent by Engelmann.
People: Ruppell, Bentham, Link, L. V. Busch, Ohler, Decaisne, Dr. G. Mettenius, Dr. Schiff, Dr. A. Schmidt, Dr. Giebel, Dr. Kloss, Mr. Bayrhoffer.

Fries, Elias 1794-1878

(1847) (in body of letter)
Upsala, Sweden
1 Message July 20, 1858 [Swedish? - English translation)
Subjects: Receipt of Lindheimer plants, etc.

Fürnrohr, Dr. August Emanuel

Regensburg Botanical Society, Regensburg, Germany.
1 Message March 19, 1845 (translated from German)
Subjects: Gratitude for plants from Engelmann and Mr. Riehl.
Appointment as Professor of Natural History and Curator of Flora.


Gabb, Wm. More 1839-1878

Philadelphia, (PA)
3 Messages January 29, 1868 – December 30, 1871
Subjects: Offer to go over his cacti and Agave collections from Lower California and Nevada with Engelmann. Discussion of numbers of species.
Scarcity of conifers.
People: Bolander, Brewer, Parry.

Garber, Abram Paschal 1838-1881

Manatee, FL; Ponta Rassa, South FL; Columbia, PA
6 Messages May 27, 1878 – November 4, 1879
Subjects: Collector for Engelmann and himself.
Plants: Isoetes,* Quercus,* and Vitis*.

Garcke, Friedrich August 1819-1904

Berlin, Germany
1 Message April 12, 1866 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Juncus species distinctions; comparisons with specimens of Kunth and Sella and Academy of Philadelphia.

Gattinger, Augustin 1825-1903

11 Messages August 20, 187? – December 6, 1882
Engelmann to Gattinger (typed translations).
Subjects: Identifications, encouragement and verifications of determinations for Gattinger.
Plants: Leavenworthia,* Allium,* Crataegus,* Lespedeza,* Arundinaria; notes on Gerardia, Silene, Antirrhinum, Vitis distribution, Isoetes, Juncus, Lemna, Callitriche and Aster; Plantago,* Arabis, Schoenoliorion, Asplenium, Buckley location, Charas, Stananthum, Euphorbia,* Solidage,* Physalis,* Polytaenia, Centunculus, Cacalis, Erigeron, Aster distributions; Croton,* Dasya,* Rhus*.
Places: Mont Sano near Huntsville, Alabama; German settlement, Cullman in North Alabama
Discussion of Palatinates.

Nashville, TN
8 Messages December 11, 1879 – July 11, 1882 (Translated from German)
Gattinger to Engelmann
Subjects: Reasons for leaving University of Munich and a discussion of scientists there.
List of correspondents.
Biographical information, itinerary, positions held.
Lack of civilization in Tennessee and particularly botanists.
Collections for himself and Engelmann.
Distribution of collections and identification of specimens.
Plants: Aruna* - those in Dismal Swamp compared with Tennessee plants Silene, Quercus,* Lemna,* Arceuthobium, Juncus,* Aster,* from banks of the Cumberland, Isoetes,* Leavenworthia,* Allium,* Crataegus,* Lycopodium, Euphorbia, Anacharis, Eleocharis.
People: Curtiss, scientists of University of Munich (by name) and list of correspondents (by name); Dr. Ferdinand Kummer, Martius, Zuccarini, Dr. Otto Sendtner, Gumbel, Bruch Schimper, Ferdinand Arnold, Dr. Gerard Jesoch, Dr. Rusch, Hasslachs.
Places: Duckriver Valley, east and west Tennessee.

Gay, Jacques Etienne 1786-1864

Paris, France
4 Messages May 6, 1853 – March 24, 1863 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Receipt of plants from Engelmann. Collecting and studying Fragaria, Gramineae, Panicum, Isoetes.
People: Gray, Paul Carrey, Braun, Durand, Durieau, Booth, Groenland.
Plants: Fragaria, Gramineae, Trientalis europea, Panicum, Isoetes

Gerard, William Ruggles 1841-1914

New York, NY
2 Messages June 24, 1880 – January 4, 1882
Subjects: Irritability of stamens of some specimens of Opuntia rafinesqueii and its relationship to pollination.
People: Leggett, Mr. Thomas Hogg.

Gerlich, Dr. Hermann von

Imperial German Consulate, St. Louis, MO
1 Message December 1, 1879 (German – no translation)
1 Message March 15, 1880 (German - English translation; not in Gerlich's handwriting)
Subjects: Inquiry about the transplantation of American species
Dispatch of Engelmann collections to the Berlin Museum
Places: Windsor Flats, Washington Avenue between 1st and 14th street.

Geyer, Charles Andreas 1809-1853

Arenzville, Morgan Co., IL; Beardstown, IN; Dr. Engelbach's farm; Westport, MO; Ft. Colville on Columbia River; Honolulu, Oahu; Botanic Garden, Dresden, Germany.
13 Messages January 4, 1843 – March 9, 1846 (German – English translation)
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and others.
Descriptions of flora in each area.
Political discussions and also of difficulties between collectors and botanists; living conditions in each area.
Planned expedition to Oregon with Sir William.
Narrative of explorers, scientists, Indians, drunks, economic possibilities of area. (4-6-1844)
Life in Hawaii.
Question about ownership of specimens.
Sale of equipment to pay debts.
Economic plants of Pacific (Oceania).
Plants: Veronica, Leavenworthia, Berberis, Wyethis helianthoides, Arabis, Collinia, Cereus, Saxifraga granulata, Dodecatheon, Umbelliferae, Claytonia, Juniperus andina, Melocactus, Lewisia, Carex, Viola, Penstemon, Anemone, Cypripedium apetabile, Pinus, Gymnandra, Thaspium, Trillium, Cocos, Pandanus, Dracaena, Arum, Digitaria, Opuntia, Trifolium, Thlaspi.
People: Mr. Nicollet, Mr. Riehl,* Julius and Adolph Meier, Weber, Gov. Joseph Duncan, Kirchers, Col. Sublette, Mr. Degenhardt,* Dr. George Engelbach, John Emerson, Nicollet,* Jesuits, Gottfr. Schutze, Roeck, Reichenback, Koch, Angelrodt, Gerke, Hoffman, Sir William Stuart,* Fremont, Mr. & Mrs. Kircher, Wislizenus, Brown, Duchatel, Dr. Rempp, Gratiot, Painscott Loos, Schneider, Torrey, Gray, Mr. Kimm, Sublette,* Mornung, Leider,* Dr. Marsch, Audubon, Matthias, Gordon, De Smet, Richter, Mr. Hagender, McDonald, Hooker,* Pursh, Laidlaw, Officer Ogden, Mr. Campbell, Dr. Judd, Gov. Kekauloa, (The King of Hawaii), Droege, Eckton, Gerki, Curator Smith, Mr. Bennett, Mr. Van Roemer.
Places: Columbis Cascades Portage, Valparaiso, Patagonia, Ft. Wallawalla, Jasper's House, Ft. Hall, St. Sacramento, South Africa, Mountains of Coeur d'Aline on Upper Spokane River in Idaho, Mesa of Nez Perce on upper Salmon River, Kootenai (Idaho), Sandwich Islands, New Caledonia, Taos, territory of Skirwich Indians, Black Hills, Missouri Springs, North California, London, Ft. Colville, Kew Gardens, Germany, Dakotah Territory, Iowa Territory, Oregon Territory, Missouri Territory.

Geyler, Hermann Theodor 1835-1889

Frankfort on the Main, Germany
2 Messages ">November 11, 1873 – September 22, 1876 (Translated from German)
Subjects: "Monstrous" cactus cultivated by Prof. Cramer of Zurich described.
Frankfort beer scandal.
Geyler's cultivation of Agave and Yucca plants from Engelmann's seeds.
Geyler's becoming a fossil botanist.

Gibbs, Oliver Wolcott 1822-1908

Cambridge, MA
1 Message July 13, 1865
Subjects: An inquiry of Engelmann's abscence of participation in the National Academy of Sciences.

Gilbert, Benjamin Davis 1835-1907

5 Message December 12, 1867 – July 22, 1870
Exchange of specimens, particularly Isoetes.
People: John A. Paine, Wm. M. Canby.

Gilbert, Grove Karl 1843-1918

A. S. Engineer Office (Explorations West of the 100th Meridian), Washington, DC
1 Message March 6, 1873
Subjects: Questions about mistletoe and fir trees on which they grow.

Gillett, Edward 1849-1931

Southwick, MA
1 Message March 1, 1878
Subjects: Request for orchids and ferns.

Gillman, Henry 1833-1915

Marquette, Fort Gratiot, Detroit, L'Anse, MI; Superior City, WI; Public Library, Detroit, MI
44 Messages August 17, 1867 – November 25, 1882
Subjects: Collections of Juncus, Carices, Xyris, Sambucus, Wolffia, Isoetes, Callitriche, Lemna, Charas, Carex, Abies, Coreopsis, Hedeoma, Corispermum, Chenopodium, Aster, Pinus, Lycopodium, Primula, Juniperus, Aplectrum, Houstonia, Corallorhiza, Aspidium, Quercus, Nymphaea, Spiranthes, and Solidago in Michigan, area with good description of plants, habitat and distribution of all as well as exact locations for many.
Disillusionment with Florida and description of political situation and living conditions.
Evidence of prehistoric civilizations on Isle Royale, and New Madrid, Mississippi with descriptions of findings.
Cultivation of various cacti in Michigan.
People: Dr. Bigelow, Gray, Agassiz, Olney, Austin, Prof. Leidy's station, Sartwell and Boott, Father Holzer,* Prof. Shales.
Places: Shores of Lake Superior; Shot Point; shores of Lake Michigan; Rawley's Pt. in Wisconsin; Sault Ste. Marie; Sandwich, Ontario; Bloody Run in Detroit; Detroit River; St. Clair River; Sulfur Springs; Fort Gratiot; Sarnia in Ontario; River Rouge; Belle Isle in Detroit River; Eagle River and Lake Superior; Silver Mining Land; Thunder Cafe, Pie. Id., Silver Islet; Prince Arthur's Island; Tawas Pt. on Lake Huron; Holland, St. Joseph and South Haven near Holland, [Michigan]; Port Huron Railway at St. Joseph, Michigan; South Chicago, Illinois; Point aux Pins; Houghton; Lake Superior; Isle Royale; Sturgeon Pt. on Lake Huron; Copper Harbor; Biscayne Bay in Dade Co. Florida; Port Iroquois.

Girard, Joseph Basil 1846-1918

Camp Apache, Arizona Territory
2 Messages November 19, 1873 – January 31, 1874
Subjects: Description of trees and other flora of the area in reference to collecting for Engelmann.
Plants: Quercus, Pinus, Arceuthobium, Yucca, Juniperus, Agave, deciduous trees in area.
People: Lt. Manning, Karl Grove Gilbert.

Göbel, David W. 1787-1872

Warren County [MO]
1 Message October 20, 1847 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Introduction letter for Mr. Wilhelm Follmus.
Places: St. Louis, Missouri.

Franklin County, MO
1 Message June 16, 1850 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Research calculations concerning differences in elevation and atmosphere between two observation points in St. Louis and New Orleans.
People: Mr. Egloffstein, Dr. Wislizenus, Miss Pahn and Miss Kimm.
Places: St. Louis, New Orleans, Constantinople.

Franklin County, MO
1 Message May 27, 1854 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Göbel’s calculation of exact time for solar eclipse on May 26, 1854 based on his research; mirror sextant already sold.
People: Mr. Josef Hermoy, Mr. Egloffstein, Mr. Gallenkamp, Mr. Kirchwarther, Mr. Kollman

Goode, George Brown 1851-1896

U. S. Commission of Fish & Fisheries, Washington, DC
1 Message February 3, 1882
Subjects: Request for aid to Mr. Reihlen in obtaining American cacti.

Gordon, Alexander 1813-1873

Pittsburg, [PA]; Baton Rouge, LA
2 Messages November 25, 1844 – June 25, 1849
Subjects: Request for advice about collection areas - Raton Mts. near Taos or Cuba. Apparently representing Dr. Hooker.

Gottsche, Dr. Carl Moritz 1808-1896

Altona, Germany
1 Message June 26, 1868
Subjects: Willingness to determine Bolander's liverwort specimens.
Strassburg herbarium, Schimper and Dr. L'Herminier Guatemalan collections.

Graham, James Duncan 1799-1865

Topographical engineer, El Paso del Norte [Mexico]; Washington, DC
2 Messages July 23, 1851 – March 12, 1852
Subjects: Projected arrangements for living conditions to be displayed in the Smithsonian greenhouses.
People: W. T. Smith, Lt. E. Hayes, Prof. Baird, Prof. Girard.

Gray, Asa 1810-1888

Cambridge, MA
1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845
Subjects: Geyer's Illinois and Oregon collections; Laavenworth's[r1] Louisiana and Texas collections; Nicollet's collections; Geyer's dishonesty; Nuttall's paper and determinations; Texas collections of Gambell, Lindheimer and Drummond.
Discussions of methods of shipping live plants; shipping practices; Post Office Law.
Techniques of mounting plants.
Western seed distribution for cultivation in eastern and European gardens.
Oregon bill and Lindheimer; discussions of name changes; species differences; writing genera and manual of flora; collections, exchanges, accounts, subscriptions and distributions of various collections
Collaboration of Engelmann and Gray.
People: Mr. Lowell as patron; Dr. McDowell, Dr. Wyman and Fremont; Mr. Curtis; Braun,* Hooker,* Torrey,* Silliman's journal; Dr. Short; Mr. Carey; Mr. Browne; Mr. Kim; Mr. Gibbs; Prof. Bailey; Dr. Hadley; Martius; Mr. Bentham; DeCandolle; NY Botanic Garden's development; Klotzch; Wiley, Putnam - agents; Sullivant; B. D. Greene, Mr. P. Durand; Prof. Cleveland.

Cambridge, MA; Geneva, Switzerland; Kew; England; Paris, France
1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850
Subjects: Augustus Fendler and Santa Fe and government expeditions; Fendler's problems; Wright on the Rio Grande with Capt. Veatch; problems with other collection trips and army; Asclepias and Euphorbia mss..; Gray's journey to Europe; Publication of Wright's 1852 cacti. Henry and the Smithsonian; Oakes' death; Rafinesque, Agassiz, Wislizenus' Texas collections; Nuttall; Thos. Bancroft - Lowell's agent; J. P. Laubouisse, Mr. Olney, Fielding, Tuckerman, Boott, Holstead - Panama Railroad Survey; Fendler's prospective Salt Lake trip with Capt. Strausberg; Mercy - Secretary of War and Col. Albert - head of Topog. Eng. and Fendler; Endlicher's death; Schlechtendal and Pastor Scheele, Berlandier, Lindley, Sprague - artist, Harvey, Webb, Hohenbacher, Riehl, J. P. Brace (took silkworm eggs to Texas); Gregg's death, Emory in St. Antonio.

Cambridge, MA (Box 9)
1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859
Subjects: Accounts for collections, subscriptions and distributions.
Parry with Emory; petty jealousies among Bigelow, Emory and Torrey; Fendler's Chagres expeditions; orchids; problems.; Wright's cacti from 1851 expedition; problems. with ownership of plants from Ringgold's Survey Expedition; Gray's trip to Europe in 1855; Shaw's collections; problems in court; plans for herbarium garden; Engelmann's trip abroad 1856-1858; publication of Cactus paper; Gray's manual; collaboration with Engelmann; news of various botanists; Engelmann's solution of Buffaloe grass problem; economic crash in 1858; Mrs. Gray's family; Mr. Lowell; Darwin's question on relationship of fevers to climate, skin color, etc.; Henry's problems in Smithsonian; Gray's lectures in Smithsonian. Col. Graham; Grisebach, DeCandolle's Prodromus and Capt. Wilkes; Dr. Dries, Boissier, Stewart, Dr. Grace, Price Paul, Fries, Nees, Stephens - commission merchant; Mr. Hume, Bojenham's poverty, Jussieu's death; Harvey to Ceylon; Moquin and Tilasne at Jardin de Plantes; Thurber and shipwreck, Wolper's death, Brackenridge's Filices, Riehl's death, Bolandier's widow and distribution of plants; Dr. Short; de Vries; Bolander; flora of upper Missouri from Gov. Steven's party; DeCaisne, Hon. Miss Murray; Tuckerman; Whipple's expedition and Loranthaceae; M. Delessert; Engelmann's brother's collections; Humboldt, Surmann; Agassiz*; Mme. Vilmorin and Standbery plants; Wright's Japanese collections; Buckley, Tatnall and Darlington; Lesquereux; Edw. McCabe, Dr. Hayden; Hastings' collection; Curtis; Spruce's Amazon plants; Nuttall's death and Arkansas paper; Thos. Meehan; Chapman's book; Engelmann's grass paper; Ernst Meyer's herbarium; F. Muller, dir. of Melbourne Botanic Garden.

Cambridge, Mass
1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865
Subjects: Fendler's problems, accounts; work for Gray and Shaw; politics of north, south differences between Gray and Engelmann; A. Lincoln, Douglas and Fremont; Prof. Henry and Smithsonian; National Academy of Science; Agassiz, Pierce, Baird and Gibb conflict; generic differences of Rocky Mt. Coniferae; New building for Gray's herbarium; Eaton; Chapman's book; Andersson; Marius and Grisebach; Lindley's lectures for Shaw; Buckley's lack of dependability; Wm. Thompson; Felton's death; Prof. Lawson of Queen's College and Abies; Parlatore; Oliver; Lyall's Brit. Columbia collections; Horace Mann, Jr.; Rothrock, Mandon in Bolivia; C. E. Smith; Dr. Rollins; Lindley's death; Durand; George [Engelmann], Jr.

Kew; Heidelberg; Montpellier; Rome; Dresden; Villeneuse; Paris; London; Cambridge, MA; Yosemite; Salt Lake; Chicago, IL
1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879
Subjects: Engelmann's plants: Nuphar, Juncus, Callitriche Mss. Cupiliferae Mss, Pinus, thistles, succulents, Vitis, oaks throughout; Boott, Braum and Isoetes; Gray's trip to colorado; seeds and shrubs from Kew to Shaw; Gray's new manual; Engelmann and Gray's trips to Europe in 1863-69; Gray's itinerary and descriptions of areas visited; Engelmann's collections of books, plants, specimens; Engelmann's new house - 1870; Wright as curator of Gray's herbarium; "King Emperor William" and politics in Europe; Gray's trip to St. Louis, itinerary, map, descriptions of areas visited; Gray's retirement from teaching; Fendler, E. Meyer; Mann's collection; John Green; Wilke's expedition; Dr. Harvey's death, Clinton at Buffalo; Ravenel; Schlechten's death; Thuret, Darwin, Vasey's plants; Crepin, Rohrback, Christian Conrad Sprengel, Hilgard, Judge Watts, Watson,* Elihu Hall, Dr. Kellogg, Prof. Harrington, Dr. Mareck, Planchon, Brunet, Goodale, Agassiz' death, Riley, Peck; Sargent, Hilgard, Cutis and Mellichamp; Braun's death, Lemmon, Miss Plummer; Murray's death.

Kew, England; Cambridge, MA; Chattanooga, TN
1880, 1881, 1882, 1883
Subjects: Gray's writing of Synoptical Flora; work on Aster* and Solidago*; Gray's trip to Europe in 1881; Goodale taking over garden from Sargent; Pringle story and greene; Engelmann's contributions to publications: Erythraceae[r2], Lemna, Abies,* Catalpa* and Erigeron*; Wines from Missouri; George Engelmann, Jr.; Eggert, Eichler, Redfield.

Green, Henry Albert 1839-1912

Atco, NJ
1 Message August 2, 1876
Subjects: Request for aid in identification of oaks.

Green, James 1808-1896

New York, NY; Washington, DC
8 Messages February 20, 1862 – February 3, 1864
Subjects: Description of characteristics of Syphon and cistern barometers for use by explorers in the western mountains. Quotes, prices, etc.

Greene, Edward Lee 1843-1915

Decatur, IL; Denver, Golden City, Pueblo, CO; Vallejo, Yreka, CA
32 Messages January 11, 1870 – January 2,1877
Silver City, NM; Berkeley, CA; Creswell, CO; Beloit, WI.; Oquawka, IL; Albuquerque, NM
27 Messages February 20, 1877 – September 13, 1882
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and others with descriptions of locations and plants. Discussions and disagreements with others as to identification and naming of species Problems with Apaches in New Mexico mountains.
Plants: Tradescantia, Echinocactus, Quercus, Mamillaria, Carex, Yucca, Opuntia, Abies, Junci, Phoradendron, Gentiana, Cuscuta, Scirpus, Areus, Vitis, Trankemia, Pinus, Eriogonum, Callitriche, Juniperus, Sagittarias, Agave, Asclepius, Alnus, Cupressus, Arbutus, Ribes, Ericaceae, Linum, Galium, Euphorbia, Caryophylaceae, Penstemon, Talinum, Anemone, Amaranthus, Cucurbitaceae, Polemonium, Sparganium, Collomia, Lythrum.
People: Dr. Gray, Mr. Hall, Mr. Marion's garden, Dr. Parry, Mr. Brandegee, Mr. Olney - dispute with him, Prof. Sargent, Mr. Watson - dispute with him, Mr. Pringle, Rusky, Lemmon - dispute with his authority in naming Prof. Hilgard. Greene becomes his assistant at the university.
Places: Dudley Ranch, Clear Creek, Arkansas River, Napa River, Canon River, Goose Neck Mt., Mogollon Mts., Mimbus Range, Georgetown, New Mexico, San Francisco Mts., salt marshes in the Napa Valley.

Gregg, Josiah 1806-1850

Independence, MO; Monterey and Saltillo, Mexico; Washington City, DC; Louisville, KY; Vicksburg, MS.; New Orleans, LA; Mexico City and Mazatlan, Mexico.
12 Messages April 17, 1846 – April 14, 1849
Subjects: Arrangement and problems with collecting for Engelmann and others of both plant and animal specimens; routes followed. Meteorological observations for Engelmann. Description of murder and executions apart from war. (1-24-1848) Capture of reconnoitering party by Mexicans. (2-10-1847)
Plants: Rosemary, flax, fennel and cottonwood included with specimens. Yellow-vine, coal specimens, Spanish moss - question as to whether it was a parasite; petrified wood specimens, Giuzache specimen - hulls boiled for making ink, Mimbre, junco - a green-thorned shrub.
People: Gen. Butler, Dr. Zabriskie; Alexander Megacy, New York dealer in instruments; Wislizenus*; Moses Greenwood, Commission merchant; Joseph Chastip, druggist; Capt. A. W. Chapman, Messrs. M. Calmong, Graves & Co., Runckel.
Places: San Pablo, Santa Rosalia, Parras to Mapimi on Chihuahua route, Red River route through Texas, Pacific coast route via Morelia (Valladolid), Guadalajara to Mazatlan through Guaymas and Gulf of California to San Diego, Monterrey, and San Francisco (probably did not actually traverse this route).

Griffith, John Price Crozer 1856-19

Philadelphia, PA
3 Messages December 1879 – June 2, 1880
Subjects: Griffith's anatomical studies on Pinus and Juncus leaves and Engelmann's aid to him in identification of specimens.

Grisebach, August Heinrich Rudolf 1814-1879

Gottingen, Germany
8 Messages May 15, 1842 – August 12, 1864 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of specimens.
People: Wislizenus, Braun, Gray
Plants: Cuscuta, Euphorbia, Pinus

Griswold, Henry Augustus 1811-1872

Gronen, W. Otto 1839-1916

Rock Island Arsenal, IL
2 Messages April 1, 1878 – May 22, 1878
Subjects: Interest in obtaining bulbs of rare Amaryllis and/or Hippeastrum. Gronen's botanical illustrations. Dr. Parry's work and friendship with Gronen. List of Amaryllidaceae in Gronen's collections.

Grönland, Johannes 1824-1891

Paris, France
5 Messages October 22, 1857 – May 18, 1859 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Arrangements for Schmelz to work on plates for Engelmann's publication. Picart sending galley proofs and drawings. Both Picart and Kehnffet working on plates; Casper and La Perraudiere looking for Algerian plants for Engelmann; shipment of American grape vines to Mr. Vilmorin; Engelmann's trip to Europe and meeting Grönland; exchange of plants with Casper.
People: Mr. Agassiz.

Grosjean, Henry

French Commission of Agriculture to U. S.; Washington, DC
1 Message May 1, 1883
Subjects: Appreciation for information on the "Phoma" from M. Prillieux and request for information on the "mildew" (Peronospora).


1 Message May 22, 1870 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of seeds.


Haage, Friederich Adolph, Jr. 1796-1860

Erfurt, [Germany]
2 Messages March 20, 1857 – March 12, 1860 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Listing of the Cactaceae of the Boundary survey, which are missing in European collections or are very rare. Request for seeds and plants of cacti.

Haage & Schmidt

Erfurt, Germany
11 Messages March 14, 1865 – May 5, 1881 (German - no translation)
Subjects: Shipment of seeds of American plants, particularly Yucca, various cacti, Chamaerops, Linum, Agave, Pinus, Vitis, Robinia, Sarracenia, etc. for cultivation in Europe.

Haeckel, Christian 1854-1918

St. Louis, [MO]
1 Message August 21, 1882 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Binding of Engelmann's books

Hagen, Hermann August 1817-1893

1 Message October 26, 1879 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Experiments using yeast-fungus as a pesticide.

Hale, Josiah ca. 1791-1856

Canton, MS
1 Message November 7, 1855
Subjects: Shipment of a box of specimens for Mr. Mead by way of Engelmann.

Hale, Thomas J. ca. 1834-ca. 1879

Albany, NY; Madison, WI
4 Messages December 3, 1860 – February 19, 1862
Subjects: Exchange of plants as suggested by Mr. Lapham and Dr. Gray; collection areas.
Plants: Euphorbia, Opuntia, Potomogeton.
Places: Upper part of the Mississippi River; Pembina, Minnesota. (North Dakota?)

Hall, Elihu 1822-1881

Athens, IL
68 Mss. November 19, 1861 – May 29, 1881 Folders 1 - 3
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann, Gray and others; itinerary and problems; biographical information; disagreement between Hall and Gray; discussions of geographical, climatic and altitudinal differences in species (11-12-1879); theory of Isoetes germination.

Folder 1 1862-1866
Plants: Euphorbia,* grasses,* Cyperaceae, Polygonium, Cuscuta, Rumex, cacti, Gentiana, Isoetes, Abies,* Charas, Heuchera, Callitriche, Hypobrichia, Solidage,* Asclepias, Sagittaria, Opuntia, Gnphalium, Diperia, Allium,* Opuntia,* Juncus,* Buchloe,* others.
People: Gray,* Parry, Fendler, Wright, Prof. Short, Durand, Durierux, Thompson, Thruber, Harbans, Dr. Vasey,* Canby,* Beach, M. S. Bebb, Mr. Shaw, Schultes*.
Places: Mason Co., Colorado City, Pikes Peak, Soda Springs,* Platte River,* Botanical Garden at Bordeaus, prairie,* Hickory Flats.

Folder 2 1867-1872
Plants: Detailed discussions of species distinctions (12-21-1867) in Vitis,* Lemna,* Cuscuta,* Echinocactus,* Opuntia,* Polymnia,* Euphorbia, Abies, Quercus,* Callitriche,* Isoetes,* Arceuthobium,* Pinus,* Andropogon,* discussion of Darwinian theory and plant reproduction, Juncus and plants associated with Cuscuta, Echinocactus, Yucca,* cacti,* Mamillaria.
People: Canby, Parry, Prof. Lesquereux, Bolander, Mr. Perkins, Michael (florist), Michaux, Nuttall, Charles Wright, Gray, Tuckerman, Dr. Farlow, Kellogg, Prof. Buckley,* Lindheimer.
Places: Pond near Springfield, along Missouri River, Bourbon Co.; Kansas; Vernon Co., Missouri; Ft. Scott, Georgetown, Pass,* Rocky hill in Bates Co., Missouri; sandy plains in Denver, Co., Butler Co., Kansas; Mt. Hood eruption and collection area, Willamette Valley and Creeks, Mason Co. Illinois; South Texas, cascades at base of Mt. Hood.

Folder 3 1873-1882
Plants: Agave - discussion on how it prevents self-fertilization. Texas post oak grape, Pinus* Gentiana*.

Hall, James 1811-1898

Cleveland, OH; Albany and Allegheny C., NY; Steamboat Vienna, Ohio River
9 Messages January 1, 1853 – December 12, 1854
Subjects: Sponsorship of various geological surveys. He. is founding member of the Geological Society. Sponsorship and financing of Hayden's expedition. Details of arrangements. Rivalries and jealousies among explorers.
People: Chouteau and arrangements with fur company. Prof. Lovelace and services in paleontology; job went to Shumard; difficulties and jealousies among geologist. Baird, Vasey. (Indian agent).
Places: Engelmann's interest in Missouri River collections and the Mauvais Terre.

St. Louis, MO
5 letter photocopies in MBG physical archive February 25, 1853 – December 28, 1854
Engelmann to Hall
Gift of J. S. Howell, Tulsa, OK from James Hall Files, New York State Library, Albany, NY
Subjects: Advice and consultation of arrangements for above expeditions. Receipts of Hayden collection of plants of flora of the Missouri Territory.

Hallowell, Dr. Edward

1 Message April 19, 1854
Subjects: Cholera and relation to environmental and sanitary conditions.

Hanbury, Thomas 1832-1907

La Mortola. Mentone, [France]
1 Message April 4, 1883
Subjects: Cultivation of succulents (from Mexico) in his garden.

Harford, William George Washington 1825-1911

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA
1 Message November 22, 1880
Subjects: Sending a specimen of Leptosyne collected in San Miguel Island includes a description of habitat and plant characteristics.

Harvey, Francis Le Roy 1850-1900

Ind. University Fayetteville, Arkansas
6 Messages February 21, 1880 – May 30, 1881
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and requests for information.
Plants: Cheilanthes,* Notholoena,* Leavenworthia at Neosho, Missouri (none found); Cynota and Conyz on the Red River, others.

Havard, Valery 1846-1927

U. S. Army Chattanooga, TN; Presidio,Ft. Concho, San Antonio, [TX]
8 Messages November 6, 1878 – January 22, 1884
Subjects: Collections and exchange of information.
Plants: Pinus,* oaks and economic uses, Euphorbiaceae, Vitis,* Agave,* oaks in San Antonio,* Opuntia, Cereus.
People: S. Watson, Dr. Girard, Dr. Gray, Mr. Reverchon's garden.
Places: Expeditions down Rio Grande River, Chenati Mts., Guadalupe Mts., Eagle Pass, Muerto, Ft. Davis, Limpio Mts., El Paso, Santa Rosa Mts., Cibolo Canon.

Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer 1829-1887

Bellevue, NE; Cleveland, OH; Ft. Pierre; Ft. Union; St. Joseph; Washington, [DC]; Philadelphia, PA; Rochester, NY; Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; Deer Creek, NE; Fort Randall.
89 Messages November 26, 1850 – December 30, 1874
Subjects: Arrangements for shipping collections, anxiety for their safety. Work on geographical distribution of plants in upper Missouri. Expeditions to Yellowstone country by St. Mary's. Publication of plant catalogue. Protest in Washington about too much natural history publication in government reports. Coming expedition of Capt. Reynolds to Yellowstone and Dr. Newberry to the headwaters of the Colorado. Collections of Flora of Nebraska by Maj. Lewis, Indian Agent. Work in meteorology. Opinions of War. (1-28-1861) Snake River Indians.
People: Prof. Baird,* Col. Vaughan, Culbertson, Prof. Hall, Col. Gilmore, Gilpin, Dr. Newberry,* Dr. Kennerly, Maj. Emory, Mr. Blake, Meck,* Dr. Leidy, Lieut. Warren,* Chouteau, Gen. Harney,* Dr. Gary,* Dr, Liney, Dr. Hayes, Capt. Raynolds, Dr. Snyder with Capt. Raeynolds expedition, Maj. Lewis, Dr. Hines, Dr. Wislizenus, Dr. Torrey, Dr. Shumard, Dr. Morre, expedition by Gen. Rosenkrantz, Raynolds and Weiner, Prof. Dewey,* Silliman, Stevenson.

Hays, William Williams ca. 1838-1901

San Luis Obispo, CA
3 Messages July 26, 1873 – January 10, 1883
Subjects: Sending photographs, seeds and berries of plants. Description of plants and flora.
Plants: Yucca,* cedar, oaks, Cactaceae.
People: Dr. Anderson, Count de Cassace.
Places: Coast range, St. Lucia Mts., San Jose Mts., Mt. Diablo, San Joaquin Valley.

Head, John Frazier

Fort Ripley
1 Messages July 24, 1853
Subjects: Sending specimens to Prof. Baird of the Smithsonian.

Heer, Oswald 1809-1883

Zurich, Germany
1 Message January 25, 1858
Subjects: Acknowledgement of plant specimens sent
Plants: Marsh variation of the Mallow
People: Haute-Rhone, Meyer, and Oensiger
Places: Boden-lake, Switzerland, Zurich, Germany

Hegelmaier, Dr. Christopher Friedrich 1833-1906

Tubingen, [Germany]
15 Messages November 18, 1864 – November 1, 1880 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Discussion of characteristics, nomenclature, etc. of Callitriche, Lemna, Wolffia, and Spirodela. (notes in Engelmann's handwriting)
People: Braun, Legell, Gussone, Berton, Geyer, Riehl, Leonhardt, Stendel, Freund, Hochstetter, Count Alb. De Franqueville, Schleicher, Ehenbeck, Austin, Karsten, Hall, Begliser, Welwitsch, Bigelow, Weddell,
Philippi, Wright, Ernst, Burmeister.

Heiden, Friedrich von der

Seed Store and Nursery, Hilden [Germany]
3 Messages February 3, 1880 – September 19, 1881
Subjects: Request for photograph and information on Dr. Geo. Engelmann to be used in Cactus Friends Information on the condition and collection of Count Salm-Dyck
Plants: Aloe, Anhalonium Fissuratum (sulcatum), Melocactus and Anhalonium, of Echinopsis, Cereus Mesembryanthemum, Echeveria, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, Pilocereus Dantwili, and E. Desmetian X E. imbriata
People: Count Salm-Dyck and M. Seeger

Henry, Joseph 1797-1878

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
16 Messages November 20, 1852 – May 10, 1878
Subjects: Announcement of the initiation of investigations relative to the Meteorology of North America by the Smithsonian. Request for Engelmann's observations, albeit imperfect, and publication. Engelmann's contribution to the Colorado expedition by furnishing the means for hyptometric measurements in exchange for botanical specimens.
People: Dr. Wislizenus, Fendler, Prof. Baird, Dellman's apparatus and works, Mr. Hilgard, Dr. Fleigel, Dr. Parry and Himphreys, Dr. Gray.
Places: Pike's Peak; various European points to receive collected specimens.

Henshaw, Henry Wetherbee 1850-1930

Washington, DC
1 Messages July 12, 1882
Subjects: Request for paper on oaks.

Hildman, H.

Berlin, [Germany]
1 Message June 30, 1872 (German - Englishno translation)
Subject: Request for seeds.

Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar 1833-1916

Belleville, IL; Vicksburg and Oxford, MS; University of California, Berkeley, CA; Oakland, CA
(Engelmann's cousin)
27 Mss. May 7, 1847 – May 6, 1883
Subjects: May and Sohne microscope for sale; shortage of paper, space, difficulties in collections; Academy. Report is stuck at Hogan's; Barlsdale is the printer and Hogan the publisher of his report; difficulties with funds; may give up his job as state geologist to become a chemistry professor. Dr. Maugh of St. Louis, an army man, is a militant competitor against Hilgard as chemistry professor; intended publication; is penny royal oil from Mentha pulegium of Hedeoma pulegiodes?; plans to go to fields of New Iberia to study dendrological structures; problems with Vitis fruits being eaten as raisins; discussion of new system of classification; Hray's textbook; Darwin's contributions; LeMont and Decaisne's theories.* Villatd's advice about travelling overland from Oregon - don't do it!; census work to do. Engelmann suffering from gout after trip west; projected trip taking young Eugene (son) up Cascades. Method for removing fossils from deposits. Engelmann's plan to go to Europe. Working on the borings of the Mississippi River Commission from Memphis to Lake Providence.
Plants: Asclepius, Rudbeckia, Juniperus near Falling Spring; Aristolochia,* Sassafras; Vitis*; Abies*; Verbena; Magnolia; Pinus*; fossil plant determinations.
People: Scheele; Mrs. W. T. Stearns with whom they live; Theodore and Rosa (Hilgard's brother and sister); Rohr; Zittman; Prof. Tristoe; Shumard; Mr. Paul Schultze and headquarters of Oregon Railway and Navigation Co.; Lesquereux; Dr. Hopkins.
Places: Camp in Chickasaw, Mississippi; Pascogoula River and Pearl River - description of flora and distribution; Yazoo and Tenzas bottoms; Montana; Berkely.

Hilgard, Julius Erasmus 1825-1891

U. S. Coastal Survey Office, Washington, DC
8 Mss. June 27, 1856 – November 11, 1867
Subjects: Sending map of magnetic declination from Coast Survey observations and results plotted from Mexican Survey; story of Academy (of science) establishment and Agassiz, Mr. Wilson, Prof. Bache and Henry; urging Engelmann to come to meetings; Engelmann's resignation in 1867, made an honorary member.
People: Mr. Bates, Mr. Keysor, Chauvenet, Prof. Pierce, Wolcott.

Hilgard, Theodore Charles 1828-1875

Belleville, IL; Heidelberg (Germany); Philadelphia; Oxford, MS; St. Louis; Golcona; Pueblo, CO; New York.
38 Mss. April 27, 1846 – September 24, 1874
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann with his brothers, Eugene and Julius; need for insect pins; need for Gray's text - using Beck; Siegman (courier) of Braun's whiskey transport are only means of sending collections; plans for leaving Washington to visit Julius and on to Germany; studying (in Heidelberg) botanical courses and obstetrics; sale of Fendler's collections in Philadelphia; medical practice; meeting of American Association of Physicians in Philadelphia; W. Hooker's unflattering comments about "outposts" of science; Regni Vegetabile Series Naturalis; treatment for a tooth problem - quinine, morphine and red wine; completion of index of U. S. Coast Survey publications; authorization by Prof. J. E. Hilgard to deposit the set of Coast Survey papers he has in St. Louis Academy of Science.
Plants: Sassafras, maple, Aristolochia, Diospyros, Acer, Aristolochia, cedars, Fraseria, Lysium hybrids, Solidago, Dodecathon, Tradescantia, Sisrynchium, geraniuMs., lily, Crotonopsis, anemone, aster, Melanthum, Ornithogalum, Smilax, Uvularia, Silphium, Pycnathum, Heyyotis, Lamium, Cassia, Lespedeza, Asclepius, Pontederia, Apios, Cornus, Sagittaria, Passiflora, (introduced by Engelmann from Arkansas), Gentiana, oaks, Chenopodium, Sarracena, Bidens, Polygonatum, Liatris, Vitis, Lobelia from Scott's pasture in settlement, Cuscuta, fungi, Botschia; drawings and descriptions of habitat accompany most discussions of the plants.*
People: Bischoff's publication, Tyndale, Fendler, Hanson (a friend of LeConts's), Benitz, Thomas Hogg & Sons, New York nurseryman, Dr. Durand.

Hinrichs, Gustavus 1836-1923

Volunteer Weather Stations of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
1 Message December 20, 1875
Subjects: Request for monthly mean temperatures of St. Louis for publication.

Hitchcock, George N. 1843-1907

Corresponding Secretary, San Diego Lyceum of Natural Science, San Diego, CA
12 Messages March 6, 1875 – March 18, 1878
Subjects: Taking photos as Engelmann requested. Description of field trip to Mexican monument with J. C. Parker. Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science. Descriptions of uses of Agave by Spanish and Indians, especially collecting liquid, boiling to make mescal liquor. Expense list for trip.
Plants: Sending cacti, Yuccas and Agave,* Agave Shawii.

Hitchings, Ebenezer Herring 1808-1893

Boston, MA
1 Messages March 11, 1882
Subjects: Corrections of Engelmann's publication on Sagittaria in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club regarding where certain species have been found. Mr. Faxon and Mr. Boott are quoted.

Hohenacker, Rudolf Friedrich 1798-1874

Esslingen, Germany; Kirchheimn. T. kgr.
8 Messages March 22, 1847 – January 26, 1860 (German - no translation)
Subjects: Specimen lists with amounts charged, one separate, 5-1857

Holbrook, Dr. John Edwards 1794-1871

Charleston [SC]
1 Messages June 13, 1840
Subjects: Letter sent originally to B. B. Brown because of the absence of Dr. Engelmann. Letter regards an exchange of reptiles and offer to Holbrook to become a corresponding member of "their scientific body" (possibly the St. Louis Academy) of Science.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton 1817-1911

Kew Gardens, Kew, England
20 Messages March 27, 1867 – May 22, 1883
Subjects: Exchange of information, especially about conifers. Visit in Colorado and California studying the pines. (11-11-1877) Discussion about other American plants. Macoun's planned exploration west of 55th m. Joseph's and William's contribution to the arboretum at Kew.
Plants: Pinus,* cacti, Cereus,* Yucca, junipers, Abies,* Agave, Vitis, - wishes to devote his time to.
People: Baker, Carpenter, Bentham, Torrey, Parry, Mr. Oliver, Mr. Nab, A. Gray, Bolander, Kelray, Brandegee, Roever, Hartuns (in reference to Colorado/California trip), Syme, Jeffry, Berry, Lemmon, Lyall, Mr. J. Booth.
Places: Oregon, Sierra Nevada, Shasta, Dublin, Pike's Peak, Cape Horn, King's River, Edinburgh, Cambridge, Newburg (nurseries).

Hoopes, Abner 1836-1920

Hoopes Bros. & Thomas. Cherry Hill Nursery, West Chester PA
1 Message October 26, 1869
Subjects: Reply to Engelmann's request to see their conifers.

Hoopes, Josiah 1832-1904

Hoopes Bros. & Thomas. Cherry Hill Nursery, West Chester, PA
25 Messages November 14, 1863 – May 23, 1883
Subjects: Hoope's work and publications on conifers, particularly Pinus, discussions of species distinctions, disagreements with others. Request for information about Oidium on grapes. Report on horticultural exhibit at the Phildelaphia Centennial.
Plants: Pinus,* Abies,* Cupressus,* Juniperus,* Glyptostrobus,* Taxodium,* Cephalotaxus,* Piedocarpus,* oakes, Aquilegia, Carya, in Pennsylvania, Exochorda from Japan.
People: Dr. Darlington, Prof. Bolander, Dr. Kellogg, Mr. Meehan. Disagreements with Parlatore and Porter on conifer arrangement, Ravenel, Michaux, Vietch, Dr. Masters, Shaw.
Places: San Francisco, Sierra Nevada, Pike's Peak, Edinburgh Botanical Garden, Schuykill River, Gray's Peak.

Horr, Asa 1817-1896

Dubuque, IA
4 Messages November 4, 1848 – December 9, 1853
Subjects: Collections of plants and animals, sends them through Engelmann to Agassiz in Cambridge. Meteorological observations for Dr. Henry of the Smithsonian.
Arrangements for shipping equipment.

Hosford, Frederick Hinsdale 1855-1923

Charlotte, VT
1 Message March 31, 1882
Subjects: Request for identification on Vitis meant for Spain, had been identified by Prof. Pringle.

Houtte, Louis van

Plant and Seed Store, Gent, Belgium
2 Messages June 7, 1867 – December 22, 1868
Subjects: Request for identification on O. Rafinesqui Engelm
Plants: Lactran, Opuntia, O Rafinesqui Engelm, Rafinesqui, and Yucca
People: Louis Van Houtte and a unidentified man
Places: Stuttgart

Howell, Thomas Jefferson 1842-1912

Sanvie's Island, Arthur, OR
6 Messages March 29, 1880 – March 12, 1883
Subjects: Collections of plants for Engelmann and others; discussion of differences in specimens of Isoetes nuttallii; Engelmann naming Isoetes species for him.
Plants: Isoetes,* Pinus, Luzula, Juncus and Gratiola.
People: Joseph Howell, Mr. Davenport, Sereno Watson, Prof. Daniel Eaton, Mr. W. N. Suksdorf.
Places: The Dalles, Milwaukie and other areas in Oregon.*

Hoysratd, Lyman Henry 1848-1933

Pine Plains, NY
1 Message December 5, 1879
Subjects: Request for identification of various specimens for his catalogue soon to be published.

Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Alexander von 1769-1859

Potsdam, Berlin, Germany.
3 Messages November 6, 1852 – September 16, 1855 (French - summaries)
Subjects: Tributes to Engelmann's popular writings and profound knowledge; appreciation for Engelmann's work and attaching Humboldt's name to it. Geographic society's lack of funds; no money forthcoming for publication of Engelmann's Molluska of Europe. Engelmann's leading Germans back to home world of nature.
People: Arago, Groesus, Kretzchmar, Grumback, V. Kistlitz, Benedict.

Hunter, Cyrus L.

Lincoln Co., NC
3 Messages September 12, 1871 – July 7, 1883
Subjects: Sending Engelmann seeds and plants and information on habitat, particularly Yucca* and Chara; planting instructions for Magnolia.
People: Dr. Curtis' catalogue.
Places: Lincolnton, Crowder's Mtn., San Bernardino Mtns.

Hunter, John M.

Houston, TX
1 Message July 6, 1880
Subjects: Request for identifications, especially "Azure blue flowers---prairies of Texas".

Hupperts, Charles 1842-1921

Austin, San Antonio, TX
3 Messages March 5, 1880 – October 28, 1881
Subjects: Request for identification of plants especially Agave*. Mexican people.


Irish, Charles Wood 1834-1904

Civil Engineer, Iowa City, IA
1 Message April 16, 1883
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to make a catalogue of his collections from New Mexico, Arizona, Dakotas and Minnesota.


Jacobi, Georg Albano von 1805-1874

Coeln [Germany], Wien [Austria], Frankfort, Breslau, Berlin and Posen [Germany].
15 Messages October 9, 1855 – November 8, 1871 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Recommends the polychrome lithograph to illustrate Engelmann’s work on cacti. Discussion of the seeds of cacti, with reference for a systematic division of the family. Hybridization attempts of Mr. Schaefer of cacti. Oberservations and descriptions of various cacti and agave. Compares the U.S. civil war with unrest in Prussia. Comments on German politics. Dispersion of his plant collection due to illness and retirement.
People: Prince Salm, Mr. Schaefer, Mr. Koch, Mr. Labouret, Prof. F. Cohn, Dr. Pany, Dr. Seeman, Mr. Jo s. Klaarer, C. Besserer.
Plants: Mammilaria, Echocactus, Malacacactus, Echinopsis, Hybris, Cereus, Philocactus, Nopalea, Opuntia, Coryphantha, Perescia, Melocactus, Echinacea, Tracera, Uhdeana, Anhalonium, Aloe, Hamarthia, Leuchtenbergia, Agave, Yucca, Roetzlia, Fourcraya.

Jaeger, Hermann 1849-1896

Neosho, MO
13 Messages November 1, 1881 – July 27, 1883 (Some translated from German)
Subjects: Discussions of Vitis* habitat, hybridization, species, correspondence, sending seeds and cuttings to Engelmann.
People: Planchon, Millardet, Jacob Boll, Buckley, Mr. Von Meusebach, Mr. Foese, Mr. Fr. Munch, Mr. Mill, Anderdank.
Places: Working with grapes originally collected in Northwest Texas, Dallas, Burnet, Hayes and Bell counties, Bernardo Prairie and Denison on the Red River.

James, Thomas Potts 1803-1882

Philadelphia, PA
9 Messages January 12, 1860 – September 18, 1873
Subjects: His relationships with other botanists, discussions of botany in general; American Philosophical Society activities.
Plants: E. tenelis (?),* others briefly.

Jan, Giorgio 1791-1866

Mailand [Italy]
3 Messages [July 2], 1858 – November 24, 1859 (German - no translation)
Subjects: Desiderata
People: Baird

Johnson, Alvin Jewett 1827-1884

New York, (NY)
1 Message January 2, 1877
Subjects: Contributions on Pinus in an encyclopedia.

Johnson, Charles Ellis 1857-1926

St. George, UT
1 Message June 10, 1872
Subjects: Request for identifications; offer to collect for Engelmann.

Johnson, Joseph Ellis 1817-1882

Office of the "Utah Pomologist", St. George, UT
16 Messages August 22, 1870 – April 6, 1880
Subjects: Collections of Yucca, cacti and grapes for Engelmann; help which Engelmann gave to him in helping him to dispose of plants. Possibilities of Utah as fine fruit-growing country, descriptions.
People: Dr. Edward Palmer, Dr. H. J. Richards, American Pomological Society.

Jones, Marcus Eugene 1852-1934

Grinnell, IA; Fraer, Tama, CO; Colorado Springs, [CO]; Salt Lake City, [UT]; San Diego, CA; Ogden, UT
20 Messages August 29, 1877 – July 24, 1882
Subjects: Joint efforts of Jones and Engelmann added fifty species to Iowa flora. Collections in Colorado especially Quercus, conifers, cypress. Disputes as to naming plants; finding and naming of new species of rose with Parry, others.
Plants: Vitis,* Rosa blanda,* Buchloe,* Abies,* Pseudotsuga,* Pleurogyne,* Mulgedium,* Picea,* Gentiana,* Heuchera sanguinea* (5-27-1879), Abies,* Ephedras,* (5-7-1880), Yucca,* Opuntia,* Cereus,* grasses.
People: Prof. B. Porter, Dr. Vasey, Dr. Parry, Dr. Robbins, Pringle.
Places: Lafayette College in Pennsylvania, St. George, San Bernardino, National City, St. Louis, MO.

1 Message July 19, (1882) Engelmann to Jones
Subjects: Scathing letter regarding Ephedra nevadensis.

de Jonge van Ellemeet, Willem Cornelis Mary 1811-1888

Middelbourg, Royaume des Pays-bas [The Netherlands]
1 Message September 20, 1865 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Growing many species of cactus.

Joor, D. Joseph F. 1848-1892

Birdston, Navarro Co., TX
1 Message March 30, 1880
Subjects: Request for help in identification of plants in Navarro Co.


Keck, Karl 1825-1894

Enns, Oberosterreich
2 Messages December 25, 1870 – February 2, 1871 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of plants.
People: Flugel, Canby

Kellerman, William Ashbrook 1850-1908

State Normal School, Oshkosh, WI
2 Messages October 22, 1877 – November 26, 1878
Subjects: Request for identification of specimens.

Kellogg, Albert M.D. 1813-1887

San Francisco, CA; Summit Camp; Sierra Nevada Mts.
4 Messages August 24, 1866 – May 10. 1880
Subjects: Returning to profession of medicine; collections for Engelmann; California Academy of Sciences flourishing.
Plants: Juncus,* on Lobos Creek, Pinus,* Abies.
People: Prof. George Davidson (Alaskan expedition), Bolander, Prof. Whitney and Mr. Stearn (California Academy of Science).

Kendrick, Henry Lane 1811-1891

Jefferson Barracks, [MO]
1 Message March 21, 1849
Subjects: Appreciation for his help and arrangements with Wright, Gray and Fendler.

King, Henry, M.D.

18 Messages December 25, 1841 – July 9, 1862
Subjects: Visit with Nicollet. Some complements about Nuttall. Remarks about Germans and African Americans. Wants Engelmann to collect and dissect Geomys Bursarius according to King’s instructions. United States expeditions. Death of Nicollet.
People: Geyer, B. B. Brown, National Institution, Western Academy of Natural Sciences in St. Louis, Lindheimer, Smithsonian, Mr. Soulard, Col. Wood, Col. Sinfrow, Mr. CJW Hyde.
Plants: Cactaceae, Cuscuta

Kirtland, Jared Potter 1793-1877

Cleveland, E. Rockport, OH
5 Messages August 23, 1855 – September 20, 1855
Subjects: Request for help with cacti; sending specimens. Introducing Edward Palmer.
People: Dr. Le Conte, Dr. Newberry.

Kleeberger, George Reinard 1849

Sheffield Scientific School of Yale, New Haven, CT
2 Messages March 8, 1875 – March 20, 1875
Subjects: Request for information about numbered specimens from Kellogg and Hartford collection of Prof. Eaton, Bolander's Gentians and Erythraeas from other collections.

Knieskern, Peter D. M.D. 1798-1871

Manchester, NJ
3 Messages February 14, 1843 – October 7, 1846
Subjects: Appreciation for Engelmann's collaboration; request for collections of Cuscuta, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Carices, and pine.
Plants: Rhynchospora, Dracocephalum, Calypso.
People: Dr. Torrey, Gray, Darlington, Sartwell, Mr. Curtis, Dr. S. B. Mead.

Koehne, Bernhard Adalbert Emil 1848-1918

Berlin, [Germany]
1 Message November 23, 1879 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Engelmann nominated as honorary member of the "Botanischer Verein der Provinz Brandenburg." Request for material of the Lytraceae; to clarify species and generic distinctions.

Koernicke, Friedrich August 1828-1908

Petersburg (U. S.)
2 Messages July 3, 1858 – July 19, 1858 (German - English translation)
Subjects: An interest in Russian plants for examples of Xanthium and Agrimonia. Sending several issues of Bozplandia to be distributed.

Kraeft, J. Heinrich

Wolgast, [Germany]
1 Message May 8, 1878 (German – English translation)
Subjects: Request for identification of American pines.

Kralik, Jean Louis 1813-1892

Paris, France
1 Message n.d. (French - English translation)
Subjects: Mr. de Franqueville’s herbarium is at Engelmann’s disposal.

Kunze, Richard Ernst 1838-1919

New York, [NY]
6 Messages October 27, 1877 – November 11, 1877
Subjects: Collecting cuttings of cacti from various localities for cultivation by Engelmann.
People: Stanley, Pfeiffer, Howarth, P. G. Baker, J. Lachaume, Bosse, Dr. Geo. Thurber, Pfersdorff, Issac Buchanan, Thomas Hogg, Peter B. Mead, W. H. Clements, R. H. Rathbun, esq., Bosse.
Places: Island of Guadeloupe, West Indies, Cuba, Barbados, Bermuda.


Labouret, J.

Angouleme [France]
4 Messages April 19, 1857 – November 23, 1857 (French - summaries)
Subjects: Invitation to Engelmann to visit his cactus gardens.
Discussion of observations on cactus structures and cultivation of cacti in his latitude.
People: Jacobi, Andry, Monville, Modier, Micheli, Benj. Delessert, Decaisne, Prince de Salm and Baron Kawsiski.

Lamborn, Robert Henry 1835-1895

Vice President of Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Co., Philadelphia, PA
1 Message July 28, 1874
Subjects: Gen. Palmer in Canon City, Colorado; cacti.

Lamson-Scribner, Frank 1851-1930

Philadelphia, PA
1 Message November 1, 1881
Subjects: Panicum specimen from Mr. Eggert.

Laning, Enoch -1866

Philadelphia, PA
1 Message October 15, 1862
Subjects: Sending seeds and specimens of Ellisia to Engelmann. Mr. T. P. James also collecting.

Lapham, Increase Allen 1811-1875

Milwaukee, WI
26 Messages December 22, 1841 – April 11, 1868
Subjects: Exchange of specimens and information, particularly about grasses.
Plants: Juniperus, asters, Solidagos, Cuscuta, Equisetum, Asclepias, Aceretes, Pinus,* Leersia,* grasses,* Paspalum,* Silphium,* Ceresia(?), cacti, Callitriche, Plants: Juncaceae, Coriopernum, Euphorbia, Potentilla in association with Juncus, Viburnum*.
People: Mr. Manz, Davis and Moore, Fr. Walker, Nuttall, Pursh, Kunth, Dr. Wunderly,* Prof. Braun, Cornwell, Spears, Michaux, Dr. Clapp, Mr. Mead, Benj. Charles, Mr. Kennel, Carpenter, Chapman, Dr. Gray, John W. Hubbard, Dr. Fessel, Dr. Vasey, Dr. Jung, Dr. Parry, Dr. Shumard
Places: Rock River Wisconsin, oak openings on prairies, Eagle Prairie, Lake Michigan, Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin River, Chippewa River, St. Croix River, Green Bay, Central and West Wisconsin, within 100 miles on La Crosse River, White Lake and River, Ft. Garry on the North, sandy beach of lake south of harbour.

Lawson, Joseph

Troy, IL
1 Message April 19, 1880
Subjects: Request for information on Canada thistle.

Lea, Isaac 1792-1886

Philadelphia, PA
2 Messaged October 11, 1876 – February 15, 1877
Subjects: Request for Engelmann paper on oaks.

Lea, Mathew Carey 1823-1897

Philadelphia, PA
4 Messages March 10, 1844 – March 29, 1846
Subjects: Exchange of specimens of western plants for eastern ones.
People: Dr. King, Mr. Kimm, Messrs. Lea and Blanchard, Prof. Baird.

Le Conte, John Lawrence 1825-1883

New York, NY
3 Messages January 5, 1848 – December 27, 1852
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to instruct Fengler [Fendler] in preservation methods for collection of entomological specimens. Le Conte's son collecting specimens for Engelmann.
Plants: Echinocactus,* Pinus, Vitis.
People: Mr. Lindheimer, Fendler, Hogg, Jantsinger, Dr. Wislizenus, Mr. Haldiman, Mr. Thompson, Prof. Agassiz. Animals:Coleoptera,* Hister,* Cicinolloe.

Leggett, William Henry 1816-1882

New, NY
14 Messages August 9, 1870 – February 17, 1878
Subjects: Request for contributions for the Torrey Club Bulletin of which he is editor. Requests for plant identifications.
Plants: Lemna,* Spirodela,* Cuscuta,* Isoetes, Solidago, Opuntia, Peltandra,* Lechea,* Asperula, Galium, Abies, Marsilea, Yucca, Agave,* Archeuthobium, Pontideria, oaks, Juniperus, Castanea.
People: Prof. Hegelmaier, Mr. Austin, Dr. Gray, Dr. Torrey, Prof. Wood, Dr. Short, Michaux, Mr. Peck, Mr. Bower, Miss Millington, Mr. Bell, Prof. Thurruber, Vasey, Dr. H. N. Smith, Mr. LeRoy, Dr. Allen, Wright in Cuba, Josiah Hoopes' Pinetum, Dr. J. W. Barstow, Mr. Ravenel, Regel, Shuttleworth, de Candolle, M. de Caisne, Mr. Eggert, Dr. Flanner, Mr. Britton.
Places: Peekskill, Staten Island, Chatham, banks of Hudson, Westchester [New York], Bethlehem [Pennsylvania], Aiken [South Carolina], Florida, Cambridge, Litchfield Lake on Bantam Pond [Connecticut].

Leiberg, John Bernhard 1853-1913

Mankato, MN
1 Message January 5, 1813
Subjects: Request for identification of a Wolffia.

Lemaire, Charles Antoine 1801-1871

Ghent, [Belgium]
4 Messages November 7, 1857 – March 2, 1869 (French - English translations)
Subjects: Request to study Engelmann's collection of cacti and possible collaboration; botanical voyage to Havana and Venezuela; discussion of speciation.
People: [Adolphe Theodore] Brongniart, [Francois Marie] Delessert, Decaisne, Dr. Hugel, Haworth, Console, Scheid, de Candolle, and Martius.

Lemmon, John Gill 1832-1908

Sierra Valley, San Bernadino, San Francisco, CA; Weber Lake in the snow; Alameda, CA; Sipon's Station, near Mt. Shasta; Oakland, CA; Fort Grant, AZ; El Paso, TX; Fort Bowie, Arizona Territory; Oakland, CA; Fort Huachuca.
34 Messages August 20, 1875 – June 1, 1883
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and others, lecture and publications in botany. Itineraries and biographical information, both Lemmon and wife. Work for Centennial. Hooker and Gray's botanical party; discussions about their accuracy. Topography, flora and landscape of Fort Grant vicinity. (10-21-80) Collection list from S. Cal, Arizona, N. Mexico, W. Texas. April to June 1881. (6-12-1881)
Plants: Conifers,* oaks,* Abies,* Gymnosperm/Conifer arrangement and names, Oreodaphne, Chamaecyparis, Arceuthobium, growing on Pinus, Tsuga,* Cypressus,* Libocedrus, Compositae collections, Picea,* Brewer's spruce, Kellog's oak, Gentiana, Plummeria,* Sequoia,* Tagetes (new Shrub), Tripsacum.
People: Dr. Parry,* Prof. Case, Dr. Vasey, Gray, Hooker,* Kellogg, Harford, Bolander and his library,* Dr. Palmer, Baron Osten-Sacken,* Prof. Greene, Prof. Watson, W. G. Wright, Mr. Bebb, Prof. Edom, Dr. Webber, Dr. John F. Morse, Dr. D. Lewis, G. Gordon A. of England, J. P. Moore, Prof. Watson, John Muir,* Prof. Wood, H. C. Ford (Artist), Prof. Brewer, Sipon,* Pringle,* Apaches at Chirracahua.
Places: Lassen Peak, Reno, Sierra, Calaveras, Co., LaCosta, Castle Peak, San Jose, Webber Lake (and Webber),* Shasta region, High Sierra, Meadow Lake, Butterfly Valley, Susanville, Tuolumne River, Ann Arbor, Hanover, San Rafael, Yosemite, Tahoe, Leassen Mt. Stanford, Eddy [Scott] Mt., McCloud River (Bolander's Staphylea), Santa Catalina Mt., Salt Lake, Chirracahua Mts., Huachucha Mts.

Lennebacker, Helen 1855

Santa Cruz
2 Messages November 5, 1878 – December 8, 1878
Subjects: Collection of specimens for Engelmann.
Plants: Naidaceae,* cedar, algae.
People: Dr. LDimmickh.

Lenormand, Sebastien-Rene, Sr. 1796-1871

21 Messages May 10, 1847 – December 11, 1871
Vire, France (French - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of plants. Mrs. Lenormand’s stamp collecting. Death notice of Lenormand.
People: Decaisne, Jules Gardye (Le Havre), Curtis, Canby, Braun, Gabb.
Plants: Cuscuta, algae, grasses, ferns, Vitis, Vieillard.

Leonhardi, Peter Carl Pius Gustav Hermann von. 1800-1875

9 Messages March 6, 1857 – December 31, 1873 (German - English translation for some)
Subjects: Descriptions of travelling. Social unrest in Europe. Philosophy of government structure. Exchange of botanical specimens and seeds. Discussion of evolution.
People: Braun, Karl Krause, Franz Seitz, Nicolas Salmeron, Otto Kraus, Carl Nageli
Plants: Cactus, yucca, Lamium,

LeRoy, Peter Vincent 1821-1889

Columbia College Herbarium, New York, NY
1 Message March 3, 1876
Subjects: Sending acorns as requested by Engelmann.

Lesquereux, Charles Leo 1806-1889

Columbus, OH;
18 Messages February 7, 1849 – (French – no translation) and English
People: Braun, John Warder, Gray, E. Hall, Drummond, Parry, Bolander, de Saporta, G.W. Dawson,
Subjects: A copy of a letter from J.A. Warder about bigonias. Selling his collections for money. Specimen exchange. Mosses and moss ecology. Introduction of Engelmann to Bolander. Discussions of plant fossils. Lesquereux’s health.
Plants: Mosses, conifers, begonias, Isoetes

Letterman, George Washington 1840-1913

(copy of letter from Dr. Vasey 4-13-81)
Allenton, MO; Hot Springs, AR; Dallas, TX
12 Messages June 18, 1875 – August 5, 1882
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann and others; collecting trips with Engelmann; descriptions of exact locations of collections. Walking collecting trips from Moark to Popular Bluff for swamp specimens. Descriptions of habitats in collection areas.
Plants: P. esculenta, Galium, Saxifrage,* Arabis, Hepatica, ferns, Gonobulus,* Liparis,* Heuchera, Clematis, Rhamnus, from Franklin Co., Glencoe, Gray's Summit, Jefferson Co. and St Louis County; Cheilanthes,* Woodwardia, Carya,* Eryngium, Plantanthera, Bletia,* Azalea, Pyrus, Viburnum, Myrica, huckleberry,* Asplenium,* Polygonella,* in Hot Springs and on the Ouachita River; Grindelia, Veratrum*.
People: Dr. Vasey, Mr. Meehan, Mr. Canby, Mr. Fendler, Prof. Sargent, Mr. Kendall of the Iron Mtn. Railroad, Mr. Eggert, Mr. Reverchon and Prof. Gray.

St. Louis, MO
George Engelmann to George Letterman
14 Messages May 16, 1875 – April 14, 1881
Subjects: Encouragement, suggestions and instructions for collections. Hybridization in hickories.* Discussion of maple systematics and economic value. Instructions for obtaining wood specimens.

Lincecum, Gideon 1793-1874

Long Point, TX
2 Messages October 20, 1867 - November 25, 1867
Subjects: Biographical information. Extensive grape collections in Texas. Collecting trip in the spring of 1867 through 19 counties of Texas making geological and entomological collections.
People: Durand, Lindheimer,* Buckley, Lincecum's daughter (collector).
Places: Coryell Co., Brazos River, Indian reservations, Guadalupe River, Colorado River.

Lindheimer, Ferdinand Jakob 1801-1879

Mirador, Mexico; Houston; Wildkat Spring; Farm 13 mi. from Houston; New Gockelsruh; Industry, Austin Co., TX; Encampment on Aquadulce, TX; New German Colony at Comals Spring, San Antonio, Co. and New Braunfels, TX
42 Mss. January 17, 1835 – February 3, 1847 and February 5, 1846 – December 1846
Subjects: Colonization and settlements in Mexico; description of the vegetation economic plants and animal life. (1-17-35) Description of the vegetation and flora in each area; collecting problems, accounts. Collection lists (11-3-41, 3-20-42, 5-16-42, 11-4-42, 4-29-43, 7-43, 9-14-43, 5-21-44, 1-22-45, 10-9-46) with distribution, descriptions and/or blooming dates; effects of Indians; Animal and fossil collections by Lindheimer and others. Journals of collecting trips; Mexican War. Description of the German Society settlement. (4-18-45 to 1851)
Plants: Cuscuta,* Yucca,* others in collection, "Musketree".
People: F. W. Braun, H. A. Karstens, Mrs. Scharkler, Mueller, Eaton's flora, Kuechental with Santa Fe expedition, Carli, William P. Smith, Lord Derby (Edward Smith Stanley), Dr. Riddel, Drummond, Kollings, Engelking, Ernst Kelberg, Dr. Meyer, Rice and Nichols, Schimmelpfenning - plant and bird collector in Victoria, Mr. Theodor Kim, Dr, Koester, V. Menseback, Mr. Runge, Dr. Roemer, Gen. Shields and Gen. Wool, Gray, V. Kiesewetter.
Places: Buffalo Bayou, White Oak Bayou, Brazos bottom, Port La Vacca on W. Matagorda Bay, Mill Creek, trip to Pedernales, Peach Creek, Indian Pt.

Lindley, John Ph.D. 1799-1865

Vice Secretary, Horticultural Society, London, [England]
2 Messages February 1, 1848 – August 28, 1856
Subjects: Arrangements for the purchase of Fendler's Santa Fe collection.

Lloyd, Curtis Gates 1859-1926

Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, OH
2 Messages December 5, 1878 – October 9, 1883
Subjects: Request for Cactaceae publication and identification of Euphorbia.

Logan, James Harvey, 1841-1928

Santa Cruz, CA
2 Messages November 15, 1880 – December 10, 1880
Subjects: Request for identification of a plant - Pereskia, Opuntia, or Rhipsalus; detailed discussion of characteristics.

Lovering, Joseph 1813-1892

Cambridge, MA
2 Messages March 11, 1859 – September 3, 1866
Subjects: Dues for American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Ludecus, Eduard

Mongomery, AL
2 Messages December 14, 1876 – December 20, 1876 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Reminiscing about travels to the United States southwest and Mexican northwest areas. Raising canaries. United States politics.

Ludwig, Otto

San Antonio, TX; Philadelphia, PA; Hoboken, NY
13 Messages October 11, 1875 – August 6, 1878 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Descriptions of grape vines sent to Engelmann from San Antonio; Engelmann's influence in sending American grapevines to Europe. Descriptions of Opuntia and other cacti; description of "Balck Spanish" vine in Texas. Engelmann's loan to him for starting his business.
Plants: Vitis, Opuntia, Catalpa, Bignonia, Mimbre, Poinceana.
People: Lindheimer, Haage & Schmidt, Prof. Koch, Mr. Gregg, G. Schleicher, Prof. Jacob Boll, Thomas Meehan, Dr. Frick.
Places: New Braunfels, Erfurt, San Diego, Saltillo, Mexico, Llano, Guadalupe, Ft. Stanton, Ft. Marion, Ft. M. Kavitt, Rio Azul, Ft. Davis.

Lüders, Friedrich Georg Jakob 1813-1904

Westport, MO
1 Message May 15, 1843 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Plant collections to be distributed by Engelmann.
People: Mr. Adolphus Meier & Co., Mr. Geyer, Dr. Wislizenus.

Luerssen, Christian 1843-1916

Prof. of Botany & Curator of the University Herb., Leipzig, [Germany]
1 Message May 7, 1882
Subjects: Engelmann's treatise on Isoetes; Luersson's collection of Pteridophytes.


Maclure, Alexander

New Harmony, IN
1 Message January 13, 1846
Subjects: Introduction to I. C. Fery; invitation to visit with him and David Owen in New Harmony.

Macoun, John 1831-1920

Belleville, Ontario
3 Messages January 2, 1867 – April 12, 1882
Subjects: Isoetes* description and habitat in Belleville; exchange and identification of Isoetes and other plants.
Plants: Brasenia, Vaccinium, Eriocaulon, Drosera, Potomogeton, Luceus, Carex, water lilies, Arceuthobium on Pinus and other conifers with exact locations.
Places: Partridge Lake, Crow River, Laurentian and Silurian Mts.

Macrae, William Frederick

Montreal, Canada
1 Message August 14, 1843
Subjects: Positive reply to Engelmann's advertisement of Charles Geyer's Missouri and Illinois plant collection; need for Southwest plants.

Magnus, Paul Wilhelm 1844-1914

University of Berlin, Berlin [Germany] (Translated from German)
1 Message March 17, 1880
Subjects: Developments in the university. News about various botanists and scientists.

Mann, Charles

Wisconsin Natural History Society, Milwaukee, WI
1 Message January 8, 1876
Subjects: Request for information on Increase Lapham now diseased; Lapham's plants in the museum; collections of Peter Engelmann.

Mann, Horace, Jr. 1844-1868

Cambridge, MA
4 Messages October 3, 1866 – October 6, 1867
Subjects: Collections of Isoetes and Juncus with descriptions of habitat and collection locations.
People: Prof. A. Braun, C. G. Frost of Battleboro, Bolander's set of plants.
Places: Concord, Massachusetts; Mansfield Mt.; Lake Winnipesaukee; Brattleboro, Vermont; Willoughby Mt.; Clark's Pond, Connecticut River.

Marchant, Mrs. J. (John)

Rochester, NY
1 Message February 17, 185?
Subjects: Request for information about her son, Ferdinand V. Hayden.

Marcou, Jules 1824-1898

Cambridge, MA
1 Message January 22, 1864 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Sent Engelmann a copy of the notes on his [1857] expedition to Sierra de Sandie.

Marshall, Charles D. 1841-1908

Corresponding Secretary, Buffalo Society of Natural Science, Buffalo, NY
1 Message August 22, 1863
Subjects: Engelmann's election as an honorary member of the Society.

Martindale, Isaac Comly 1842-1893

National State Bank, Cambden, NJ
22 Messages March 12, 1870 – March 13, 1882
Subjects: Collection and exchange of specimens. Description of collection sites. Trip to Colorado with Engelmann in 1878.
Plants: Cascuta* from Pennsylvania, elsewhere, Juncus,* Isoetes,* Vitis in relation to disease, Opuntia in New Jersey, Euphorbias, Quercus,* Pinus,* in New Jersey, Carya,* Prunus,* Boltonia*.
People: Prof. Peck, Parker (praise for his botanical ability), Mahon, John Gill, Prush, Mrs. Schott (relative to her husband's collection), Bush, Lindheimer, Meehan, Canby, Palmer, Dr. Hooker, Gray, Goode (?), Sargent, Watson, Falco, Parry, Meehan, Mr. Holly.
Places: Eastern Pennsylvania, Toms River near coast; Haddonfield, New Jersey; Ballach grounds; C. & O. Railroad 19 mi. from Camden, Colorado; Mr. Holly. (Itinerary through Europe (see letter in Box 2, Botanical Notebook 2, Folder 31)

Martius, Carl Friedrich Philipp von 1794-1868

Munchen, [Germany]
2 Messages July 1, 1863 – May 25, 1864 (German - no translation)

Masters, J. H. (James Harris), 1819-1909

Nebraska City
1 Message June 14, 1880
Subjects: Sending specimens of spruce from "Deadwood Dak."

Masters, Maxwell Tylden 1833-1907

The Gardeners' Chronicle Office, London, [England]
9 Messages July 20, 1876
Subjects: Exchange of information, particularly on Conifers. Problem of nurserymen with separation of fir species.
Plants: Juncus, Agave, Echinocactus, Japanese conifers,* Japanese spruces,* Pinus,* Abies*.

Maximowicz, Carl Johann, Baron 1827-1891

[St.] Petersburg, [Russia]
Dir. of Bot. Museum of Imperial Academy of Science.
2 Messages August 26, 1876 – September 29, 1879 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Japanese pines and Chinese pines. Parlatore’s pine examinations.

Mazyck, William St. Julian 1827-1901

Waverley Mill, Georgetown, [SC]
5 Messages May 4, 1880 – February 21, 1881
Subjects: Various aspects of oaks; acorn germination, edibility of live oak tubers, interest in oaks by Mr. Meehan and the Academy of Natural Science.
People: Ravenel, Mellichamp.

McAfee, Henry H.

Secretary American For. Association, Freeport, IL
1 Message January 18, 1877
Subjects: Request to publish Engelmann's oak monograph in American Forestry Association Transactions

Mead, Peter B.

Mamaroneck, West Chester Co., NY
1 Message March 22, 1883
Subjects: Fruiting of Cereus under cultivation, cross-pollination.
People: Dr. Kunze of New York.

Mead, Samuel Barnum 1799-1880

Augusta, IL
105 Messages October 23, 1841 – August 26, 1871
1841-1843, 1844-1846, 1847-1848, 1849-1850, and 1851-1871
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann, exchanges with him and others. Dissatisfaction of Engelmann with Mead's specimens. Arrangements and routes for shipping specimens to and from Engelmann and eastern sites.
Plants: Heuchera, Veratrum, desire for European plants, Aster, Equisetum,* Carex, Arabis, Centenculus, Asclepias,* Cyperis, Erysimum,* Hymenopappus, Delphininum, Sparganium, Phlox, Astragalus, Diosporus,* Euphorbia,* Polygonum, hybrid oaks, Quercus,* Juncus, Scutellaria.
People: Agents in Warsaw, Quincy, St. Louis, Boston and New York. Dewey, Mr. Buckley, M. A. Curtis, Mr. Lapham, W. F. Macrae of Montreal, Dr. Short, Mr. Holton, a collector in Illinois, Mr. Sullivant, D. B. Cahpman, Dr. Carpenter, Thurber, Rev. T. C. Porter, Fendler's plants, Stewart, Emory's report, Cornwell's Wisconsin plants, Jonathan Browning (possible agent for Engelmann in Salt Lake), Gray, Goodin plants, sale of Dr. Woelker's herbarium, Fendler's Isthmus collections, Lindheimer and Wright, Dr. Stahl, Mr. Bockelei, Hayden's Yellowstone plants, F. Brendel's request for medicinal plants, Dr. Kmesken.
Places: Hancock Co., Warsaw, Pike Co., Illinois*; sand barrens near Beardstown,* Crooked Creek and Warsaw.

Mears, Ellis

Messonge, VA
3 Messages April 9, 1881 – March 1882
Subjects: Disagreement with Wood and Chapman's descriptions of pines in his area from his observations. Payment for Engelmann's Pinus monograph.
Plants: Pinus Taeda*.

Medill, William 1802-1865

Treasury Dept., Comptroller's Office
2 Messages August 23, 1858
Subjects: Accounts for engravings for U. S. & Mexican boundary Survey Report.

Meehan, Thomas 1826-1901

Gardener's Monthly, Germantown Nurseries, Germantown, PA
69 Mss. July 4, 1859 – May 19, 1883
1859-1871, 1872-1877, 1878-1880, and 1881-1883 Subjects: Development of embryos, fertilization, fruiting; production of male and female flowers. Morphology of impregnation of pines. Cultivation and observations of plants for Engelmann. Theories on plant development reproducing the sequence of evolutionary development with observations. Theories on wood formation, bark formation. Academy of Sciences. Theories on bud development with observations; flowering times. Variation within species rather than separate species. Biographical information Publication of Illustrations. Theories and observations on timberline, grasses, soil retention, elevation.
Plants: Cereus,* Agave,* Aloe,* other succulents - formation of fruit and seed. Rhipsalis,* Echinocactus,* Opuntia,* Mamillaria,* - descriptions, blooming times, species distinctions. Pinus,* Abies,* other Coniferae - morphology, cone structures, flower development. Magnolia,* Vitis,* Phytolacca, Amelopsis, cucumber, osage oranges, Yucca,* Arceuthbbium,* Calycanthus,* Acer,* Juniperus,* Triticum,* Verbena,* Cuscuta,* Carya,* Solidage and Aster, Robinia, Iris,* Juncus,* Oenothera, Lewisia, Acanthaceae, Ruellia,* Thuja*. Quercus structures, hybridization, grafts.
People: Henry Shaw, C. E. Smith, Gray, Caleb Copes, Bassnett (?), Mr. Lapham, Josiah Hoopes, Nuttall and Lindley and Gray's explanations, Dr. Spruce, Dr. Schott, Tryon, Prof. Porter, Dr. Henry Lessmann (?), Mellichamp's oaks, Murray, Letterman, Henry Ward Beecher, J. Soder (?), DeCandolle, L. Prang, Mazyck, Rothrock, Parker and Redfield, Burk, A. Smith.
Places: "Buffalo Rocks" in Ottawa, Illinois; Woodbury, New Jersey; Rocky Mts., Colorado; Engelmann Canon, Isle of Wright, Gray's Peak.

Meek, Fielding Bradford, 1817-1876

Albany [NY]
1 Messages September 17, 1853
Subjects: Return after expedition and praise from Hall & Baird for collections with better specimens than Seidy. Appreciation for loan from Engelmann.
People: Agassiz, Dr. Evan's collection, Mr. Hayden.

Meier, John W. 1833-1903

St. Louis, MO
1 Message March 23 (?) (German - no translation)

Meisel, Augustus

Boston [MA]
4 Messages August 25, 1877 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Printing of plates of Pinus, etc. delineated by Paulus Roetter.

Mellichamp, Joseph Hinson 1829-1903

Bluffton, Charleston, Jas. Island, SC; Savannah, GA
127 Messages November 24, 1870 – November 27, 1883
1872, 1870-1871, 1873-1874, 1875-1876, 1877-1879, and 1880-1883
Subjects: Exchange of specimens and information. Drawings and descriptions throughout the series. Discussion of expression "Pine Mast" (11-13-1872)
Plants: (1871-1873) Yucca,* Pinus, cacti,* Asclepias, Hibiscus. (1874-1876) Yucca,* Pinus,* cacti,* Iva,* Quercus,* Vitis. (1877-1883) Yucca,* Pinus,* Quercus,* catalpa. Yucca (specimen enclosed - 8-12-1880), Psilotum, Bignoniaceae.
Places: St. Augustine; Meridian, Texas; New River Swamp; Cuba.

Menand, Louis, 1807-1900

Mettenius, Georg Heinrich 1823-1866

Leipzig, [Germany]
24 Messages October 31, 1857 – June 18, 1865 (Some translated from German)
Subjects: Sale and purchase of Bernhardi's herbarium. List of collectors and collection sites of the specimens. (12-29-57)
Arrangements for transport through the Smithsonian.

Meusebach, John O. 1812-1897

Loyal Valley, Mason Co., TX
8 Messages July 12, 1878 – January 5, 1883
Subjects: Uses of Yucca by Indians; uses of Dasylirion by Mexicans. Grape culture* and wine-making Emory's Boundary Survey.
Plants: Vitis,* Hesperaloe,* Sophora, Yucca, Cereus, Agave, oaks, currants, Mimosa, Chilopsis, Catalpa, Opuntia, Dasylirion.
People: Comanche Indians, Lipan Indians, Scheele, Berlandier, Lindheimer, Emory, Krauskopf, Watson, Dr. Lipscombe and Bush's catalogues, Mr. Dapperich.
Places: New Braunfels, Cibolo, Llano Stream, Friedrichsburg, Nuesces, Concho River, San Cibolo, Ft. Clark, F. Davis, Devil's River, Parras, Belleville, Bexar Co.

Michler, Nathaniel 1827-1881

U. S. and Mexico Boundary Offices, Washington DC
4 Messages August 5, 1856 – July 28, 1857
Subjects: Arrangements for engraving and printing of cacti from Boundary Survey.

Millardet, Pierre Marie Alexis 1838-1902

Nancy, Bordeaux, Baynererdu Bigorre, [France].
13 Messages December 29, 1876 – August 21, 1883 (French with English translation)
Subjects: A request for grape seeds. Observation of Phyllonera on grapes.Grape vine grafting and hybridization.
People: Biehl, Bush and Meissner, Agricultural Society of La Gironde, Eggert, Charles Wetmore of California,
Plants: Vitis

Miller, Frederick A. 1836

Station C, San Francisco, Mount Shasta, Adams Spring, CA
11 Messages March 30, 1881 – May 21, 1883
Subjects: Request for identification of cacti; exchange of information and specimens.
Plants: Various cacti, oaks, pines.

Millington, Lucy A. (Mrs.) Ann Bishop 1825-1900

Glen Falls, NY; South Haven, MI
9 Messages May 1, 1872 – April 2, 1877
Subjects: Observations on pines, spruces and firs parasitized by Arceuthobium: detailed descriptions of characteristics of growth patterns, reproduction, etc.

Mitchell, Silas Wier M.D. 1829-1914

Epidemics and Contagious Diseases Committee, National Board of Health, Washington, DC; Philadelphia, PA
4 Messages April 7, 1879 – December 18, 1879
Subjects: Investigations into the cause of yellow fever; calendar of meetings; Engelmann's signature on the report.

Mohr, Carl Theodor { Charles Theodore} 1824-1901

Mobile, [AL]
5 Messages October 13, 1878-December 1, 1882 (English and German, transliteration and translation of German)
Subjects: New Euphorbia; requests for Euphorbia* determinations; descriptions of oaks and pines habitat and locations for both and for other plants.
Plants: Quercus durandii; Croton alabamensis; Rhus; Darbya; Yucca
Animals: None
People: Langdon, Sargent, Woolson, Prof. Smith, Chapman, Cassino
Places: Bibb County,AL; coasts of Florida and Mississippi and Alabama; Huntsville,AL

Morse, Lucius Dewitt 1822-1902

San Mateo, CA
1 Message October 21, 1877
Subjects: Lemmon's book; Abies,* Quercus,* Frittillaria,* Grindelia,* Yerba,* Lonicera*.

Morton, Samuel George 1799-1851

Philadelphia, PA
4 Messages May 9, 1841 – November 6, 1847
Subjects: Academy of Natural Sciences; introduction to Engelmann of Gambel and Holmes.
People: Dr. Brown, Krafft, William Gambel, Wislizenus, Carpenter, Wright, K. S. Holmes and B. B. Brown.
1 Message July 28, 1837 (Engelmann to Morton)

Motelay, Leonce 1830-1917

Bordeaux, [France]
1 Message May 14, 1880 (French - English translation)
Subjects: A request for American publications on Isoetes.
People: Albert Vendryès

Mueller, Ferdinand von 1825-1896

Melbourne, [Australia]
6 Mss. September 26, 1876 – February 7, 1883 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Persecution in Australia. Possibilities for oak culture in Australia. Paucity of plants in which he is interested - oaks, lilies and Amaryllis.
Plants: Oaks, lilies, Amaryllis, conifers, Cereus, Acacia, Pinus, Cuscuta.
People: Bentham, Gray, Dr. Barroeta, Agassiz, A. Braun, Dr. Behr, Prof. Sargent, Prof. Hilgard, Schimper.

Mühlenpfordt, Philipp August Friedrich 1803-1891

Prof. of Zoology and Botany at the Polytechnic. Sch. of Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
1 Message January 4, 1847 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Interest in exchange of insect specimens.
People: Carsten.

Muir, John 1838-1914

Murtfeldt, Mary Esther 1848-1913

Kirkwood, MO
1 Message April 2, 1878
Subjects: Appreciation for identification of specimens.


Naudin, Charles Victor 1815-1899

Antibes, France
1 Message May 31, 1881 (French - no translation)

Nealley, Greenleaf Cilley 1846-1896

State Agricultural & Mechanical College, College Station, TX
1 Message December 15, 1882
Subjects: Collection of Vitaceae and Junci in vicinity.

Newberry, John Strong 1822-1892

Smithsonian Institution; Cleveland, OH; Washington, DC; School of Mines, Columbia College, New York, NY; Salt Lake City
10 Messages October 7, 1858 – January 31, 1883
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann; descriptions, sketches and locations for specific plants.
Plants: Cactaceae,* Euphorbiaceae,* Echinocactus,* Opuntia,* Mamillaria,* Agave,* Penstemon,* Menziasia,* Pinus,* Pellorea, Chelanthus, Adiantum.
People: Mollhausen, W. J. Howard, Joseph Mercure, Dr. Rutland, Goeppert, Prof. Baird, Mr. Kunth(?), Dr. Vasey, Torrey.
Places: San Diego, Colorado River, Rio Grande, Partridge Creek, San Francisco Mts., Texas, Santa Fe, Long Valley, Ramshorn Mts.

Nicollet, Jean Nicholas 1786-1843

On Steamboat Maryland, Ohio River; Washington DC
7 Messages November 27, 1837 – April 7, 1842 (French - no translation)
Subjects: Report (at Goebel's residence) of meteorological observations.

Norway, William Henry 1834-1900

(Govt. Surveyor) Santa Barbara, CA
1 Message April 7, 1878
Subjects: Reply to Engelmann's request for botanical findings.
Plants: cacti, Yucca, pine. (Descriptions of plants and locations)
People: Dr. Dimifkof.
Places: Mojave Desert, San Bernardino, San Gabriel River.

Nuttall, Thomas 1786-1859

Edenville, NY; Philadelphia, PA
2 Messages August 31, 1841 – November 30, 1841
Subjects: Introduction of Dr. Young, recommended by Prof. Silliman. Santa Fe expedition and Mr. Gambel; determination of Gambel collection by Engelmann.
Plants: Quercus*.
People: Dr. Young, Silliman, Mr. Gambel, Dr. John H. Barnard, G. W. Carpenter, Brander Wright & Company, Thomas Crook, Mr. Lea, Michaux.
Places: Santa Fe; California.


Oakes, William 1799-1848

Ipswich, [Mass.]
1 Message March 13, 1843
Subjects: Exchange of New England plants for others.

Oliver, Daniel 1830-1916

Royal Gardens, Kew, England.
3 Messages September 14, 1871 – August 18, 1876
Subjects: Mr. Hiern working on Diospyros and Ebenaceae at herbarium. Request for aid in Glyptostrobus and Cupressus.

Olney, Stephen Thayer 1812-1878

Providence, RI
9 Messages January 6, 1867 – November 6, 1872
Subjects: Exchange of specimens and information, especially Carex and Juncus.
Plants: Carex,* Juncus,* oaks, walnuts, Cuscuta, names woody plants.
People: Dewey, Boott, Parry, Hayden, Weright and Lindheimer's collections, Mr. Greene.

Orcutt, Charles Russell 1864-1929

San Diego, CA
8 Messages October 21, 1882 – September 27, 1883
Subjects: Collection of plants, discussions of species differences, collections of seeds.
Plants: Pinus, Quercus, Agave, cypress, Cuscuta, cactus, Cereus, Rosa.
People: Parry, Mr. Pringle.
Places: Lower California, Cuyamaca, Todos Lautos Bay, Encenada, St. Rafael, Tiajuana.

Osten-sacken, Carl Robert 1828-1906

New York, [NY]
1 Messages November 5, 1876
Subjects: Interested in Quercus.

Owen, David Dale 1807-1860

New Harmony, IN
2 Messages November 22, 1844 – July 31, 1845
Subjects: Geological sediments, etc. common to New Jersey and western formations. Arrangements for series of lectures in St. Louis.


Paine, John Alsop 1840-1867

Utica, [NY]; New York, N.Y; Newark, [NJ]
10 Messages January 14, 1865 – June 4, 1867
Subjects: Requests for Engelmann's aid in publication of a catalogue of flora for the Buffalo State University; collection sites and climate discussed in relation to plants; methods of plant description.
Plants: Naias,* list of plants and locations; Nymphaea,* other water plants.
People: Judge Clinton, Prof. Braun, Dr. Woolworth, Gray, Prof. Caspary.
Places: Onondaga Lake, Winfield, Clark's Mills, Salina, Albany, Paine's ordination and relocating to Turkey.

Palmer, Dr. Edward 1829-1911

Acting Assistant Srug. U. A. Army, Fort Whipple, Arizona Territory; Camp Grant, Arizona Territory; Washington, DC; Fort Yuma, Ehrenberg, Arizona Territory; San Bernardino, San Francisco, California; Davenport, Iowa; St. George, Red Creek or Paragoonah, Beaver, Spring Lake, Utah; Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts; San Luis Potosi, Saltillo, Mexico.
51 Messages February 15, 1867 – December 21, 1881
Subjects: Collections for the Agriculture Department; request for Engelmann's aid on grapes for article on ancient and modern Indian foods. Corrections and information as to places of collection, labeling, collection dates, etc. Conditions in Agriculture Department in herbarium and greenhouse. Description of uses of cacti and pines by Indians, especially Mojave. Itineraries of trips in Arizona, Utah and Mexico with descriptions of conditions when collecting, e.g. Indians, political situation in Mexico. Shipments of live plants, shipping routes, instructions for culture. Indian mound explorations. Praise for quality of collections; questions about specimens.
Plants: Chia (called by Mexicans) uses, Agave,* Yucca,* Juniperus,* Pinus,* Quercus,* guava fruit, grapes,* Opuntia,* Echinocactus,* mistletoe,* Libocedrus, Lecherguilla mansa* )?).
People: Prof. Baird,* Dr. Parry,* Smithsonian, Mr. T. E. Johnson, Dr. Coues, Dr. Task, Dr. Vasey,* Schott, Prof. Riley, J. Duncan Putman, Dr. Barroetta, Mr. Watson, Sargent.
Places: Post marks are bases for collections. Southern Arizona and Sonora, Prescott, Arizona; Muddey(?), Mt. Trumbell, Parras Estada Coahuila, Mexico; Camp Date Creek (after Southern Arizona Dates - Yucca).

Engelmann to Palmer
St. Louis, [MO]
2 Messages July 12, 1868 & January 8, 1870

Parish, Samuel Bonsall 1838-1928

San Bernardino, CA; Ivanpah (mining camp)
24 Messages February 2, 1880 – May 2, 1883
Subjects: Information on plants collected for Engelmann. Routes of collecting trips, descriptions of habitats.
Plants: Mamillaria,* Opuntia,* Fouqueria,* Agave,* Pinus,* Quercus,* Dicentra,* Stillingia, Juncus,* Yucca,* Cereus, Ephedra,* Euphorbia,* Whitewater Mentzelia.
People: Dr. Parry,* Sargent, Mr. Vasey, Rev. Mr. Greene, Mr. Pringle, Palmer's seed, Mr. St. Foix, Mr. Watson; Thos. Meehan. (letter of 8-15-1882 to Thos. Meehan)
Places: Toros, San Diego and Mexican border, Chickawalla, Dos Palmas to Ehrenberg, Santa Monica, Whitewater, desert on Colorado River, Mojave Desert, California peninsula, Vallecito and San Felipe, San Felipe Rancho, Ballora Rancho, shipments of cacti to Marseilles.

Parker, Charles F. 1820-1883

Philadelphia, [PA]; Camden, [NJ]
8 Messages August 3, 1866 – November 8, 1867
Subjects: Exchange of plants and information.
Plants: Juncus,* Cuscuta,* Isoetes associated with Scirpius.
People: C. E. Smith and "Griffith's Swamp", Dr. Jos. Leidy.
Places: Dennisville, New Jersey; Staten Island; Burlington Co., New Jersey; Cumberland, New Jersey; Quaker Bridge, New Jersey "wet iron ore bogs".

Parker, Joseph Chamberland 1834-1910

San Diego, [CA]
3 Messages January 22, 1876 – April 4, 1876
Subjects: Arrangements about photographic plates, stereos of Agave, Yucca, etc. Parker's election as corresponding secretary of the Academy.

Parlatore, Filippo, (Philipp) 1816-1877

Florence [Italy],
2 Messages September 9, 1862 – September 26, 1866 (French - English translations)
Subjects: A request for Torreya and Pinus occidentalis from Santo Domingo. A request for Abies and Picea concolor. Receipt of specimens. Printing Italian flora. People: Gray.

Parry, Charles Christopher 1823-1890

Sandy Hill, NY; Eagle Pass, TX; New York City; Camp Soda Springs, Colorado City, CO; Denver; Empire.
16 Messages July 2, 1851 – May 4, 1855
Subjects: Boundary Survey in process; publishing of preliminary report; field notes, corrections, information Engelmann had requested, especially on cacti; mismanagement of Survey. Difficulties between Hall and Parry, division of duties. Observations, botanical and meteorological in expedition to Rocky Mts. in 1862.
Plants: Mamillaria,* Cereus,* Echinocereus,* other cacti* information.
People: Wislizenus and Wright collections, Mr. Schott's drawings, Capt. Stanbery's report, Mr. Potts of Chichuahua, DeCaisne's supervision of plate preparation in Paris, Schott's routes, jealousies of Thurber and Bartlett, Hall as State Geol. Survey head, Maj. Emory, Dr. LeConte, Dr. Gray, Nuttall, Dr. Bigelow, Conl. Bartlett, Torrey, Prof. Baird, Adams & Company Express, Dr. Owen's geol. survey.

Davenport, IA; Denver City; Cabin at Fort of Snowy Range; Mississippi River below Davenport; Camp near Cottonwood Springs; Mt. Vernon, Rocky Mts.; Tarryall, South Park; Camp above Empire City; Gibson's Lake near Gold Hill; Boulder City.
39 Messages May 8, 1860 – December 19, 1861, December 28, 1861 – December 25, 1862
Subjects: Expeditions to Rocky Mts., summers of 1861 and 1862; field notes of plants and meteorological observations, descriptions of areas, snow line/elevation/plant data. Answers to Engelmann's questions. "Working up" collections in Davenport, information on specimens.
Plants: Alpine plants, Claytonia,* Syntris, Penstemon,* list of families collected, Pintus,* Primula,* Lepidanthus,* Polemonium,* Abies,* Gentiana,* Arceuthobium on pine, Oenothera,* Juncus, Polygoniad,(?) Heuchera,* Applopappus, Ribes, Abies measurements, Androsace,* Stanleya, Senecio* Nuphar,* Picea, Helianthus, Opuntia*.
People: Torrey, Gray, Fendler, Bigelow, Schott, Watson, Gov. Gilpin, Dr. James' death, Prof. Short, Dr. Andrews, Kellogg, Newberry, E. Hall,* Dr. Olshausen a comparison of Parry, James and Long's observations and measurements of Long's Peak, Evans, Gen. Case, Eaton, LeConte, Mr. Nunich, George S. Merrick, Brewer, Lyalls, James M. Dalzell, Prof. Agassiz (lectures in Davenport), Mr. Howard, Tuckerman, Thos. Meehan, Thompson.
Places: Routes of travel are extensively outlined. Platte River, Ft. Kearny, Saratoga, Gray's Peak, Pike's Peak, Gibson's Lake near Gold Hill, Clear Creek Data,* crop cultivation in areas, Middle Park and Grand (Lake) Valley, Osborne Lake.

Davenport, IA; Ft. Hoyt; Camp near Ft. Hays; Ft. Wallace; Ft. Lyon; Camp on Huerfarev; Badito; Ft. Garland, Sta Fe; Prescott, AZ
32 Messages January 19, 1863 – November 11, 1865, March 19, 1966 – November 23, 1867
Subjects: Expedition to southwest, field notes of plants and meteorological observations, descriptions of areas. Expedition to Colorado in 1867. "Captured" herbarium from south. Plans for Pope expedition. Gray's speech in the American Academy of Science. Data on Colorado from the Railroad Survey and Ft. Riley. Engelmann's radicalism in botany; politics in science. Allusions to dishonesty in the military authority of the Western Dept. Railroad progress. Indian troubles. Arkansas River, geological observations; route on Sangre des Christos. Reorganization of survey party to Pacific.
Plants: Tsuga,* Abies,* Picea,* Pinus,* Nuphar,* Viburnum,* Cornus,* Juncus,* Jamesia, Buchloe grass, Andropogon,* cacti,* Juniperus*.
People: Brewer, Newberry, Hayden, Fendler, T. Drummond's expedition, Schott, Shaw and his garden,* I. A. Lapham, Dr. Hudon of Lyons, Vasey, Bigelow, A. Hood's quackery in meteorological observations, Dr. Velic, LeConte, Mr. Perry - president of railroad, Mr. Roetter, Mr. T. M. McKissock and Col. Greenwood of Union Pacific survey, Kit Carson, Gen. Wright.
Places: Silver lodes on Mr. Engelmann; post marks. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; New York City; Westford, Connecticut; Washington DC; Branfort, North Carolina; Woodshole [Massachusetts]; St. George.

25 Messages April 13, 1868 – May 17, 1874
Subjects: Academy in Philadelphia, Botanical Club in New York, work in Department. of Agriculture and commercial uses for plants. Expedition to North Carolina Mts.
Plants: Pinus edulis, cacti,* western grasses, Yucca,* live oaks, Cereus, cactus seed pod used by Indians for hair brush, Cinchona culture in the U. S., Agave.
People: Durand, LeConte, Mr. Perry of Railroad, Thruber, Prof. Baird, Brewer, Eaton, Hall, Vasey, Canby, Schott, Palmer, Bolander, King's plants; George Engelmann, Jr., Peck, Olney, Ravenel, J. D. Whitney, Watson, Hooker, Gray, Smithsonian, Antisell, Whipple's expedition, Thomas.

Davenport, IA; Cambridge; New Orleans; San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Colton, Los Angeles, California; San Juan; Yosemite, San Diego, Oakland, San Francisco, California.
Messages January 15, 1877 – December 12, 1878, January 5, 1879 – December 29, 1880, January 13, 1881 – December 14, 1881, and January 28, 1882 – January 7, 1884
Subjects: Expeditions to Mexico; short trips in California; expedition to California Peninsula; field notes, observations, plant uses. Engelmann's trip to Colorado; progress of railroads.* News of botanists in the West.
Plants: Abies,* "Sisal grass",* Pinus,* Quercus,* Cereus,* Agave,* Juglans,* Cupressus,* Mamillaria,* "Tuna", Erythraea, Picea,* Carya* in Mexico, "Lequilla mensa",* Beschuensis, Hechlea, Asclepsias,* Gentiana,* Tsuga, Ephedra,* Cleomella,* Opuntia,* Populus,* Sparganium, Escholtzia, (perennial), Oxytheca,* Frankenia,* Rosa problem and Jones, Ribes, Arctostaphylos,* Calanche.
People: Thruber, Lemmon,* Davenport Academy and Mrs. Putnan,* Duncan,* Palmer,* Torrey, Watts, Watson, Schott, Greene, Hooker and Gray, Shaw, Mrs. Partry, Natural History Society members in Mexico, Salazan, Humboldt, Mr. Hensley, Rev. E. L. Green, Dr. Barroeta,* Hayden, Mrs. Lemmon, Dr. Cochran,* Mr. Pickering, Vasey and agriculture dept., Academy of Science in San Francisco, Wright,* Watson, Sargent,* Jones* discussion of character, Gov. Stanford,* Kellogg, Parrish Bros., Dr. Behr,* Muir,* Pringle,* Prof. Hilgard, Dr. Strengel, Gen. Bidwell, Patterson, Bulkey, Orcutt,* Cleveland, Hutchins, Miss Fanny Fish, Sherzel, Cl. B. B. Redding's death; Meehan, Canby and Patterson in the "Montreal maelstrom", E. Hall's death, Watts, Bolander's disgrace, Dr. Weber.
Places: Detailed routes of each trip.

George Engelmann to Parry
St. Louis, MO
21 Messages November 6, 1853 – November 21, 1865

St. Louis, MO; Kreuznach; Kew; Philadelphia (some to Gray)
20 Messages March 16, 1866 – December 13, 1869

St. Louis, MO
33 Messages January 18, 1870 – November 21, 1871

St. Louis, MO
22 Messages April 30, 1872 – December 1873

St. Louis, MO
18 Messages January 15, 1874 – December 14, 1874

St. Louis, MO; Atlanta, GA; Cambridge, MA
34 Messages January 10, 1875 – September 10, 1877

St. Louis, MO; San Bernadino; Tucson, AZ
35 Messages March 10, 1879 – September 29, 1880

St. Louis, MO; Berthoud's Pass, CO; Hot Sulfur Spirngs, Middle Park; Empoire City, CO; Leadville, CO; Santa Fe, NM
18 Messages March 24, 1881 – December 12, 1881

St. Louis, MO
26 Messages January 13, 1882 – December 27, 1882

St. Louis MO; Cambridge, Brookline, MA; New York,(NY); Frankfurt on the Main
26 Messages January 28, 1883 – December 15, 1883

George Engelmann, Jr. to Parry

St. Louis, MO
7 Messages September 19,1866 – October 21, 1888
Subjects: Engelmann Jr.’s recovery from illness. Arrangement of George Engelmann, Sr.'s papers and notes and publication from them. Mrs. Putnam’s help with looking over Engelmann’s papers. A request for Parry to write a biography of Engelmann. Parry sending letters to Engelmann Jr. for confirmation they were from Engelmann Sr. Trelease replacing Engelmann.
People: Shaw, Mrs. Putnam, Trelease, Asa Gray, Dr. Weber, Buchenau, Mrs. Wolcott (from Davenport), Koch (in Berlin)

Parsons, S. B. (Samuel Bowne) 1819-1906

Flushing, N.Y.
1 Message September 14, 1875
Subjects: Request for identification of oak leaves and acorns. Engelmann listed the names on the verso.

Pasch, Konrad 1831-1900

Ried, [Austria]
1 Message March 28, 1877 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of plants; description of local flora.

Patski, Julius Hermann 1838-1930

F. D. A. Russell, WY
1 Message August 26, 1877 (German - no translation)

Patterson, Harry Norton 1853-1919

Herbarium of Harry N. Patterson, Oquawka, IL
18 Messages January 19, 1874 – November 22, 1882
Subjects: Planned bulletin on plants of Illinois and Engelmann's aid. Exchange of plants and specimens with Engelmann and Eggert; desiderata list.
Plants: Juncus,* Cleome,* Gentiana* and others in less detail.
People: Eggert, Givench(?), Vasey, Korbes, Dr. Schneck, Mr. Bebb, Rev. E. J. Hill, Rev. E. L. Greene, Dr. Parry, Dr. Mead, Mr. Cassino, Pringle, Curtis.
Places: Grand Tower, St. Clair Co.; Wabash Co.; Rock Island; Henderson Co.; Winnebago Co.; Kankakee Co.; Georgetown, Colorado; Gray's Peak; Missouri River; Vermont.


1 Message January 14, 1858 (German – no translation)

Pech, Frederick 1807-, Pech, Mrs. Eliza 1827-

Department of Agriculture, Boonville, IN; Washington, DC
7 Messages September 13, 1861 – September 18, 1868
Subjects: Request for identification of plants; descriptions of various plant characteristics and his findings. Mrs. Pech describes unfair treatment of Pech by the Department of Agriculture; loss of his collections.
Plants: Chara,* Orobanche,* others.
People: Riddell, Nuttall, Gray, Michaux, Emory, Chevallier, DesFontaines, Reichenbach, Vancher, Chapman.
Places: Nebraska Territory, Platte River, Orobanche in Europe.

Peck, Charles Horton 1833-1917

State Museum, Albany, NY; Forestburgh, Sullivan, CO
8 Messages October 23, 1867 – July 20, 1885
Subjects: Discussions of Arceuthobium, habitat, trees, fungi.
Plants: Archeuthobium,* Juncus,* various fungi.
People: Clinton, Gray, Braum, Leggett, Prof. Wood, Ellis, Berkley, Cooke.
Places: Sandlake, Rens. Co.

Perry, Mrs. Sarah M. Hayden 1824-1911

Uxbridge [MA]
1 Message January 26, 1879
Subjects: Eulogy on the death of Dr. J. W. Robbins , and whether Engelmann wants any specimens returned to him.

Pfeiffer, Ludwig Karl Georg (aka Louis Pfeiffer) 1805-1877

1 Message undated (German – no translation)

Pfersdorff, Charles -1876

London, [England]; Paris, [France].
4 Messages February 15, 1871 – November, 1875 (German – some English translations)
Subjects: Exchange of information and plants; conditions because of war.
Plants: Echinocactus,* other cacti.
People: Dr. Weber, Mr. Cels, Mr. Seitz, Mr. Guedeney, Emil Gerard, Dr. Poselger, Hasselhoff, Gen. Jacobe, Dr. Moulin.
1 Message April 3, 1870 (German – English translation)
Subjects: Cactus seeds for Pfersdorff and Dr. Weber.

Phoebus, Dr. Philipp 1804-1880

Prof. of Med. [Giessem]
1 Message August 2, 1846 (German - no translation)

Phoenix, F. S.

Mackinaw, IL
1 Message November 21 (?)
Subjects: Request for identification of wild grape specimen.

Picart, Philibert 1825-1895

Paris, [France]; Kreuznach [Germany]; Berlin, [Germany]
15 Messages January 12, 1857 – November 10, 1858 (French - English translations)
Subjects: Engraving plates for Engelmann while Engelmann is in Europe; arrangements for plates.
(Engelmann's itinerary on back of letter dated March 21, 1857)
Engelmann to Picart 4 Messages January 19, 1857 – April 11, 1857

Pike, Walter Nathan 1862-1953

North Carmel, ME
2 Messages March 26, 1883 – February 20, 1883
Subjects: Request for identification of cacti.

Plummer Sara Allen (Lemmon) 1836-1923

Santa Barbara, [CA]; Davenport, IA; Alameda, CA
3 Messages April 8, 1878 – January 15, 1880
Subjects: Offer to accompany Engelmann and Rev. Greene on California trip.
Offer to collect for Engelmann; Lemmon and Parry's whereabouts and itinerary.

Porter, Thomas Conrad 1822-1901

Prof. of Botany and Zoology, Scientific School of Lafayette College, Easton, Mercersberg, Harrisburg, Lancaster, PA
33 Messages March 18, 1851 – April 18, 1882
Subjects: Collection of plants; exchange of information and plants; catalogue of Pennsylvania plants. Detailed discussion of route, plants collected habitats, locations in expedition to Colorado.
Plants: Quercus,* Depteracanthus,* Euphorbiaceae,* Sagittaria,* Spargania,* Cyperaceae, Pinus,* Vitis,* Isoetes,* Juncus,* Abies,* Carya,* Agave,* Spartina,* Carex*.
People: Mead, Hon. J. C. Bucher, E. Durand, Prof. Baird, Prof. G. G. Bischoff, Rev. Leander Ker, Dr. Gray, Prof. Durieu, Mr. C. E. Smith (Reading Railroad) Aubrey H. Smith, Dr. Leidy, Dr. Robbins, Dr. Green, von Schweinitz, Canby, Nuttall, Mr. Olney, Dr. Torrey, Dr. F. V. Hayden's cacti, Sullivant, Hall, Parry, Meehan, Mr. Brandegee, Mr. Coulter.
Places: Alleghney Mts.; Hancock, Illinois; Susquehanna; Sault St. Marie; Delaware River; Blair, Huntington, Mifflin, Centre, Union and Lancaster Counties; Isle Royale; Uxbridge, Massachusetts; Kewcanaw Point; Broad Mt.; Smithville Swamp; Rausch's Sta.; Cold Springs; Saucon River; Bethlehem Island; Carbon Co.; Henry's Fork; Green River; Presquo Isle; Yellowstone Lake; Moosehead Lake.

Engelmann to Porter 1 Message January 8, 1867

Poselger, Heinrich 1818-1883

Berlin, Germany
11 Messages July 20, 1858 – October 18, 1875 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Cacti classification. Exchange of specimens, especially cacti; grafting of cacti. Comments on the plants collections of several people, and the state of cacti studies on Germany. Comments on the U.S. Civil War. Observations on various cacti.
People: Dr. Belloy Espinosa (Puerto Rico), Linike, Haeger, Senike, Klotzsch, Prince Salm, Jacobi, Baumann, Pazzani, Droege, Labouret, Braun, Haseloff, Dr. Weber, Pfersdorff, Tarobi, Seitz, Mr. Hiltmann
Plants: Echinocactus, Mammillaria, Echinopsis, Cereus, Echinocereus, Prunus, Coryphantha, Melocactus, Verbena, Cirsia, Mentha, Opuntia, Anhalorium, Pelecyphora, Pilocerus, Epiphyllum, Rhipsalis, Peireskia.

Potts, John fl. 1840-1854

Washington D.C.
1 Message March 1, 1853
Subjects: Questions of publications on cacti. Mentions Scheer’s cacti collections.
People: Wislizenus, Scheer, Salm Dych.

Poulsen, Christian Marinus 1818-1885

Copenhagen, [Danemark]
2 Messages March 21, 1880 – November 6, 1880
Subjects: Exchange of specimens and information, conifers of Northern Europe and Arctic (Greenland).

Prang, Louis 1824-1909

Publisher, Boston, [MA]
1 Message May 14, 1878
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's endorsement of publication efforts.

Prantl, Karl Anton Eugen. 1849-1893

2 Messages April 29, 1882 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Discussion of needle drop from conifers; receipt of Hysterinum fungus, possible cause of defoliation.

Prestele, Joseph 1796-1867

Ebenezer, NY
1 Ms. December 4, 1857
Subjects: Offering his services to Engelmann as an engraver; previously he had engraved plates for Lt. Whipple's report and Maj. Emory's report.

Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey 1838-1911

Charlotte, VT; Tucson, AZ; San Francisco [CA]; Portland, OR; San Diego, Colton, CA; Santa Cruz, [CA]; Madison, WI
32 Messages December 25, 1878 – November 4, 1882
Subjects: Exchange of specimens and information, especially oaks, pines and spruces. Discussion of trip with Parry and Jones. Difficulties with Jones. Reason's for resignation from Sargent's museum work.
Plants: Quercus,* Isoetes,* Pinus,* Cupressus*.
People: Prof. Sargent, Dr. Parry, Mr. & Mrs. Lemmon, Mr. Greene, Cole, Dr. Kellogg, Prof. Pumpelly, Marcus E. Jones, Barbey, Parish Bros. Mr. Battles, F. A. Miller.

Probasco, Henry 1820-1902

Oakwood, Cincinnati, [OH]
1 Message November 4, 1879
Subjects: Request for publication and assistance on firs.

Puissant, Peter A. 1831-1911

Troy, [NY]
2 Message November 11, 1871 – April 6, 1872 (One letter in German - no translation)
Subjects: Request for specimens for himself and Mr. Fr. Crepin.

Purkyně (Purkinje) Emanuel von. 1831-1882

Weisswasser, Bohemia, Austria
15 Messages February 6, 1875 – May 10,1881 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Request for needles of Pinus species. Discussion of pines, oaks, and elms. Refutation of the idea that forests influence rainfall. Difficulty identifying American trees in European gardens. Loss of forest lands in America and soil depletion. Explanation of the spelling of his surname. Possibility of a forestry school in America and his teaching it. Discussion of American flora – geologic interpretation and migration of varieties. Questions about the use of Rhus in tanning. Discussion of how various conifers fared during extremely severe winters.
People: Poezl, Willdenow, Leonardi, Focke
Plants: Pinus, Ulmus, Quercus, Crataegus, Rubus, Vaccinium, Andromeda, Azalea, Fraxinus, Carya, Juglans, Picea, Robinia, Rosa, Salix, Abies, Rhus, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Larix, Celtis, Taxodium, Thuja, Juniperus, Pseudotsuga, Taxus, Cryptomeria, Cunninghamia, Cupressus, Thuyopsis, Cedrus, Sedum, Cotoneaster, Sanothamnus, Sequoia, Viscum

Putnam, Charles Edwin 1825-1887

Davenport, IA
1 Messages October 30, 1874 – September 30, 1878
Subjects: Return of money from Mrs. Putnam and appreciation for the Engelmann's kindness to Duncan (Putnam).

Putnam, Joseph Duncan 1855-1881

Canon City, CO; Spring Lake Villa, UT; Davenport, IA
14 Messages April 21, 1875 – September 30, 1878
Subjects: Expedition to Colorado, meteorological observations, collections of fossils and study of geology; Mormons with whom he lived in Spring Lake, Utah. Work in Academy of Natural Science in Davenport, responsibility for the "Proceedings." Engelmann's visit to Davenport in 1878.
Plants: Lilium.
People: Mrs. Sheetz, Mr. Brandegee, Dr. Briggs, Dr. Parry,* J. Green, Mr. Ulke, Mr. Cresson, Le Conte, Mr. Strecker, Dr. Hagen, Dr. Palmer, Prof. Gray, Mrs. Gray, Mr. Burges, Emerton, Cook, Prof. Henry Foreman.
Places: Empire City, Colorado, Mexico (Parry's expedition).

Putnam, Mary Louisa Duncan 1832-1903

(Davenport, IA)
3 Messages 1879 – July 30, 1882
Subjects: Visit to St. Louis; plans for memorial issue of the "Proceedings" to her son, Duncan Putnam.
People: Dr. Parry, Dr. Hagen, Prof. Osborn.


Radlkofer, Ludwig Adolph Timotheus 1829-1927

Munchen, [German]
1 Message December 9, 1876 (German - no translation)

Rattan, Volney 1840-1915

San Francisco, Oakland, CA
2 Messages April 24, 1878 – January 20, 1883
Subjects: Request for papers on firs and pines and offer of help.

Rau, Eugene Abraham 1848-1932

Bethleham, PA
1 Message August 21, 1882
Subjects: Collector of cryptogams; request for identification of Isoetes.

Ravenel, Henry William 1814-1887

Aiken, SC; Rome, GA
49 Messages November 19, 1866 – April 15, 1882
Subjects: Ravenel's difficulties with poverty and living in the south after the war. Exchange of information; plant, fossil and mineral collections; fungi and grapes; "Fungi Amer."
Plants: Pinus,* Yucca,* Juncus,* Nuphar, Quercus, Vitis,* Lycopodium, Sagittaria, Ilex, Pinckneya, Ptelea, Dentaria, Baptisia,* hybrid grapes,* Oxalis, Azolla, Lemna,* Isoetes, Cryptogam collection for sale; lists of plants sent.
People: Gray, Prof. Braun, Dr. Curtis, Dr. A. P. Wylie, Le Conte, Tuckerman, Meehan, son Harry, Mr. Berkley, Prof. C. U. Stevans, Dr. Wood, Dr. Mellichamp,* Dr. R. Dwight, Samuel Ravenel, Elliott,* Dr. Chapman, M. C. Corke, Michaux, Wm. St. J. Mazyck, Mallinkrogt, Van der Velden, Bessey, Dr. Allen, Dr. Torrey.
Places: Stone Mt., Georgia; seals in South Carolina.

Raynolds, William Franklin 1820-1894

Office of the Yellowstone and Montana Exploring Expedition, Washington, DC; Colonel U. S. Lake Survey, Detroit, MI
8 Messages November 27, 1860 – May 13, 1867
Subjects: Arrangements for Engelmann to determine plants collected in the expedition; terms. of payment, etc.

Rebuffet, L.

Paris, [France]
3 Messages January 13, 1858 – December 8, 1858 (French - summaries)
Subjects: Engravings for Engelmann while Engelmann is in Europe.
People: Mr. Fleishmann, Picart, Martin Schmitz.

Redfield, John Howard 1815-1895

Academy of Science, Philadelphia, PA
5 Messages February 19, 1878 – May 24, 1880
Subjects: Academy affairs; sending Engelmann the Schweinitizian Herbarium and Academy North American herbarium of Durand. Canby, Meehan, Martindale and Redfield to be delegates to Centennial of the American Academy
People: Canby, Gray, Martindale, Parker, Meehan, Sargent.
Places: Roan Mt. reunion.
unknown; Part of letter from Mr. Redfield to Asa Gray
1 Message no date
Subjects: Publication of Annals, Engelmann’s election as Corresponding Member Of The Lyceum, Department of Botany.
People: Engelmann, Mefors E., J. Poppe.

Redfield, William Charles 1789-1857

New York, NY
2 Messages September 25, 1854 – March 9, 1855
Subjects: Exchange of information on meteorological observations.
Data on cyclone of Sept. 6 - 11, 1854.

Reed, Annie M. Portland, OR

1 Message September 29, 1880
Subjects: Appreciation for Engelmann's visit and scientific discussions.

Regel, Dr. Eduard August von 1815-1892

Director, Imperial Botanic Garden, St. Petersburg [Russia]
11 Messages June 13, 1858 – February 12, 1887 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Exchange of specimens of Russian and Japanese plants and publications for American ones; Pinus seed suitable for Russian climate. Engelmann's visit in 1868 in Germany.
Plants: Cuscuta, Euphorbia, Pinus,* Juncus, cacti, Rubus,* Vitis.
People: Gray, Torrey, Prof. A. Braun, Mr. Twerdiansky, Mr. C. Maximowicz (herbarium director), Watson - bookseller, Brandt. (Letter of 6-25-1858 from Baron Karl von Kuster and von Berg)

Reichenbach, Heinrich Gustav, Jr. 1824-1889

Dresden, [Germany]; Leipzig, [Germany]; Kew [England]
6 Messages June 25, 1857 – May 5, 1878 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Written while Engelmann was in Europe, 1857 - 1858. An offer to exchange specimens.

Reihlen, Adolf 1824-1912

Stuttgart, [Germany]
1 Message August 28, 1879 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Sending specimens of Opuntia, Mamillaria and Agave; description of growth, habitat; comparisons of various cacti.

Reinsch, Paul Friedrich 1836-1914

Zweibrucken, [Germany]
1 Message March 3, 1869 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Offer of scientific communication with German botanists and exchange of plants by suggestion of Dr. Fleigel.

Reissek, Siegfried 1818-1871

1 Message May 31, 1876 (German – English translation)
Subjects: Sending plants, seeds from lower Austria. Grapes at the Fall exhibition. Changes in professorship in Vienna.
People: Prof. Braun, Baron von Babo, Prof Karsten, Ungers (?)
Plants: Cacti, grapes

Retzdorff, Adolph Eduard Willy 1856-1910

Berlin, [Germany]
1 Message May 25, 1878 (German - summary)
Subjects: Exchange of specimens, especially galls, larvae; method of preserving microscope slide material.

Reverchon, Julien 1836-1905

Dallas, TX
10 Messages October 18, 1878 – February 19, 1883
Subjects: Requests for identification of specimens; sharing of observations on flora of area, especially grapes; disagreement with Harvard on Umbelliferae identification.
Plants: Vitis,* Quercus,* Carya,* Cuscuta,* Euphorbiaceae,* Caltis, Chenopodium, Polygonum,* Bohmeria,* Oxybaphus,* Juglans,* Juniperus,* Scutellaria,* Yucca,* Umbelliferae,* Andrachne*.
People: Gray, Watson, Letterman.
Places: Ft. Griffen, Comanche's Peak, San. Saba and Fredericksourgh,* Trinity River.

Reynolds, Edward C.

New York, [NY]
1 Message April 29, 1883
Subjects: Request for identification of west Texan cacti. (illus.) (Letter originally sent to Gray; note by Gray).

Reynolds, Mary C. 1852-1936

St. Augustine, FL; Pittsfield, MA; Catskill, NY
3 Messages April 4, 1873 – October 16, 1873
Subjects: Collection and discussion of Yucca species; specimen preservation problems.
People: Mr. Williams, Mr. Wm. H. Leggett, Mrs. Dr. Putnam, Miss Margaret Torresy, Mr. Horatio Lockwood, Mrs. Ingersoll.

Rhees, William J. 1830-1899

General Assistant, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
1 Messages August 18, 1855
Subjects: Notice of shipment of copies of Smithsonian Contrib.

Richardson, John M. 1820-1899

Secretary, Missouri Historical Society, Office of Secretary of State, Jefferson City, MO
1 Message July 17, 1854
Subjects: Request for Smithsonian Cont.; Mr. Henry.

Riddell, John Leonard 1807-1867

Branch Mint and Med. Department, University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA
3 Messages March 20, 1842 – August 20, 1854
Subjects: Exchange of plants and publications, especially fresh water algae.
People: Lindheimer.

Ridgway, Robert 1850-1929

Curator of Ornithology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
1 Message November 20, 1880
Subjects: Clarification of drawings of oaks from Mt. Carmel, Illinois.

Riley, Charles Valentine 1843-1895

Chief, Entomological Commission of Department of Interior, Washington, DC
Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Washington, DC
3 Messages June 20, 1878 – January 18, 188?
Subjects: Question about Agave flowering in cultivation; Yucca sketches.

Ritter, Carl, 1779-1859

1 Message April 30, 18?? (German – English translation)
Subjects: Sending a membership diploma to the Geographic Society. Gratitude for friendship and work on antholysis. An offer to host Engelmann for the next meeting.

Robbins, James Watson 1801-1879

Matagorda Peninsula, TX; Uxbridge, MA
8 Message January 10, 1864 – September 16, 1867
Subjects: Preparation of catalogue of plants of Lake Superior; reaction to criticism of his collections. Notes on specimens from New Orleans area; detailed discussion of Juncus collections.
Plants: Euphorbia, "wild sage",* Oenothera, Juncus,* Eleocharis, Sagittaria, Panicum,* Trillium,* Symphoricarpus, Heleocharis, Nymphaeaceae, Quercus,* Gentiana,* Nuphar, Potomogeton,* Wolffia, Lemna.
People: Wm. Boott, Mr. Oakes, Prof. Tuckerman, Mr. Chas. Wright, Dr. Torrey, Prof. Porter, Mr. Smith, Mr. James (bryologist).
Places: Lake Superior;* Copper Harbor, [Michigan]; Ipswich, Massachusetts; Winooski Falls, Vermont.

Robins, Charles Ephraim 1832-1893

Little Annie Mining Company, Summit, CO
1 Message June 21, 1877
Subjects: Offer of exchange of Summit plants in return for identification.
(Letter to Prof. W. B. Potter, Washington University, [St. Louis, Missouri].

Robinson, John 1846-1925

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, [MA]
3 Messages October 19, 1877 – March 27, 1880
Subjects: Appreciation for Engelmann's help in systematics of his herbarium. Work with oak specimens, collection locations.
Plants: Quercus castanea,* Pinus, ferns.
People: Mr. J. H. Sears, Mr. Sargent, Mr. Davenport.
Places: Essex, County,* Topfield, Middletown, Georgetown, Boxford, Lynnfield, Andover.

Robinson, William 1838-1935

Convent Garden, London, [England]
1 Message March 13, 1878
Subjects: Request for paper on firs.

Roetter, Paulus 1806-1894

Cambridge, MA
3 Messages January 28, 1873 – January 1, 1878
Subjects: [artist for Engelmann Cactaceae and Coniferae publications] discussion on images
People: Dr. Mellichamp, Professor Agassiz

Rothrock, Joseph Trimbel 1839-1922

Wilkes Barre, Schockshinney, Philadelphia, Chester, PA
49 Messages March 23, 1874 – November 4, 1883
Subjects: Assignment to Wheeler as surgeon and botanist; arrangements and "red tape" involved in the publication of the report. Rothrock's appointment as professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Comparison of economic uses for different species of pine. Methods of preparation of microscopic slides of wood.
Plants: Cactaceae, Gentiana,* Agave,* (mescals for Indians), Archeuthobium,* Pinus,* Vaquelina = Photina?,* Echiuna, Damiana,* Echeveria, Quercus,* Dasylirion,* Vulpina,* Sciadopitz.
People: Wheeler,* Dr. H. C. Yanen, Vasey, Gray, Mr. Watson, Mr. Thurber, Sprague and Eaton's contributions to report; Bebb, James and Watson's contributions, Woodruff Expedition.
Places: Santa Rita, Mts., Mt. Graham, Sanata Valley, San Bernadino, route from Los Angeles to the Tulane Lake region, exact locations of Lake Elizabeth, Ft. Tefan, Mt. Pinos, Kim Lake, Walker's Basin, Weldo, Peru Creek, Mt. Olance, Owens Lake, Bartlett's Canon, Mt. Whitney, Monticola, Natte Mt.(?); Ash Creek, San. Rita Valley, Arizona.

Rudkin, William H. -1896

New York, [NY]
1 Message December 22, 1881
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's oak publication.

Rusby, Henry Hurd 1855-1940

Vernoa, H. J.; Silver City, NM; New York City; Franklin, NJ
8 Messages May 6, 1880 – January 22, 1884
Subjects: Offers his services to Engelmann in collecting in the Mogollan Mts.; wants to exchange his collections for Engelmann's dissecting case, books and instruments. Discussion of Opuntia habitat and growth.
Plants: Opuntia,* Mamillaria, Cereus, Echinocactus.
People: Dr. Gray, Wislizenus.
Places: Colorado River, Diamond Creek.


Sachs, Julius von 1832-1927

Wurzburg, Germany
4 Messages December 18, 1877 – June 28, 1879 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Description of method of separating plant cells using Schultze's apparatus; unicellular and multicellular plants compared.
Request for Engelmann's Yucca paper.
Plants: Yucca, Siphonales, Mucorales, Desmidiales, Bacillariales.

Saint-Paul-Illaire, Baron Ulrich von 1833-1902

Director, des Vereins zur Beforderung des Gartenhause in Preussen, Fishbach, Schlesien.
1 Message October 18, 1883 (Translated from German)
Subjects: His work on conifers; Engelmann's aid in distinguishing species.
Plants: Abies*
People: Veitch, Meehan

Salm-Reiffenschied-Dyck, Joseph Maria Franz Anton 1773-1861

Dyck, Germany
28 Messages December 7, 1846 – July 11, 1858 (German - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of cacti specimens. Comments on German politics. Discussion of classification of cactus. Method of packing cacti for shipping. Cholera epidemic in Europe. Description of his book Cacteae in Horto Dyckensi cultea. Opinions of German and Irish American immigrants. Opinions on the culture of cacti. A defense of his organization of the cacti. Discussion of the definition of species vs. variety. Comments on American politics.
People: Mr. Potts, Lindheimer, Mr. Mühlenpfordt, Cultor, Sir John Taylor, Mr. Fischer, Mr. Seeman, Mr. Poselger, Mr. Scheer, Mr. Krook, Mr. Labouret, Mr. Lemoire, Mr. Pfeiffer.
Plants: Opuntia, Mammalaria, Echinocactus, Cereus, Melocactus, Echinocereus, Echinopsis, Malacocarpus, Pilocereus, Phyllocactus, Epiphyllum, Discocactus (Disisocactus), Rhipsalis, Pfeistera, Lepismium, Nopalea, Bacca, Leuchtenbergia, Cylindracea, Anhalonium, Pelecyphora, Aulacothele, Coryphantha, Peirescia, Sequoia, Ficus, Aloe.
Places: Texas; Rio del Monte, Mexico; Chihuahua; New Mexico; Valley of Meptitlan, Mexico; Cerros Island; Saltillo; Guadelupe.

Sander, Enno 1822-1912

Enno Sander and Maas, Mineral Waters and Ginger Ale, St. Louis, MO
1 Message December 31, 1880 (German - no translation)

Sanford, James A.

Toledo, OH
2 Messages July 14, 1880 – July 21, 1880
Subjects: Request for publications on Cactaceae.

Saporta, Gaston de (Louis Charles Joseph Gaston de) 1823-1895

One Boulevard Du Rhone
2 Messages August 2, 1876-July 15, 1880
Subjects: A discussion of oaks and pines.
Plants: Quercus.
People: Mr. Lesquereux.
Places: Aix.

Sargent, Charles Sprague 1841-1927

Botanic Garden, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Census Office, Department of the Interior, Brookline, MA; Department of Agriculture, Census Office, Brookline, MA; Austin, TX.
123 Messages October 21, 1874 – December 22, 1877, March 23, 1878 – December 18, 1879, February 26, 1880 – December 21, 1880, January 1, 1881 – Decemeber 25, 1881, January 1, 1882 – December 25, 1882 and February 13, 1883 – December 14, 1883
Subjects: Collaboration and interchange of information, mostly on trees in which Engelmann specialized. Engelmann's assistance in Sargent's work as an expert and special agent in the 1880 census. (1879-1882); Sargent and Engelmann's trip to California in the summer of 1880, their itineraries and discoveries, follow-up studies and discussions. Disposition of Engelmann's microscopic wood specimen slides and Engelmann's tree measurement data. Discussion of drawings and photographs for publication of the North American trees. Routes of Sargent's various trips.
Plants : Abies,* Quercus,* Yucca,* Larix, Agave, Isoetes, Ilex, Pinus,* Bumelia, Celtis,* Prunus,* Thalictrum, Carya,* Fedia, Sciadopity(?), Sequoia, "Foxtail pine", tamarack, Juniperus,* Cycadaceae, Sagittaria, Picea,* Catalpa,* Taxodium,* Cupressus,* Ulmus of Nebraska, Robina of Arkansas, Bumelia of Illinois, Celtis of Mississippi, Carya of Red River, Quercus of New Brunswick, Castanea of Minn., Manchoonia walnut, Taxus, Tsuga, Mesquite of Skinner's Tucson collection, Salix,* Crataegus, Pseudolarix* (?), Viburnum.
People: Joshua Hoopes' garden, Mr. Watson, Bigelow and Kellogg's specimens, Eggert, Letterman, Wheeler report, Bolle, Edward Kidder, Curtiss, Chapman, G. R. Vasey, Greene, Lesquereaux's Flora of Arkansas, Parry, Parsons, Clarence Goode, Marcus E. Jones, Lemmon, Pringle, Dr. Masters, Mr. Lavallee's plants, Skinner's Tucson collections, Buckley, Hooker, Robert Brown, Brandegee & Schultz, Prof. Porter, Tweedy's plants, Pumpelly & Canby, Caspary.
Places: Sierras, Central Nevada, Colorado locations, North Utah, Alleghenies, Hudson River, valley of the Genessee, Charleston by old Dragton mansion, Apalachicola, Pearl River, Southern California, Silver City, Black Hills, Alabama, Chattahooche (Curtiss collections), west Texas, Ft. Davis, Texas; Rio Grande and El Paso, Guadeloupe Mts., Sta. Rita Mts.

Sartwell, Henry Parker 1792-1867

Pennyan, NY
8 Messages November 15, 1865 – July 5, 1867
Subjects: Exchange of photographs of living American botanists. Discussion and description of Juncus in his collections; dispute with Gray on his determinations.
Plants: Juncus,* Carices*.
People: Dr. Shuman, Dr. Bigelow, Gray.

Saunders, William Wilson 1809-1879

Hillfield, Surrey [England]
1 Message July 14, 1857
Subjects: Request for information on Prince Salm-Dyck and his collection of succulent plants.

Saurman, Benjamin F.

Philadelphia, PA
3 Messages July 17, 1866 – October 11, 1866
Subjects: Request for information on routes and cost for trip to California.
People: Dr. Parry.

Scarborough, George 1806-1883

Sumner, KS
1 Message July 30, 1866
Subjects: Request for North American Juncus.

Schaffranek, Dr. Anton 1835-1923

St. Charles, MO
1 Message November 19, 1878
Subjects: Request for information.

Scheele, Georg Heinrich Adolf, Rev. 1808-1864

Heersum bei Hildesheim
1 Message January 8, 1850 (German - no translation)
Subjects: [Plant list of numbered specimens]

Scheer, Frederick 1792-1868

[Northfleet, England]
1 Message [1858]
Subjects: Invitation to Dr. & Mrs. Engelmann to his home.

Schlechtendal, Diederich Franz Leonhard von 1794-1866

2 Messages December 23, 1857 – July 20, 1858
Subjects: Cuscuta specimen. Offer to fill in Engelmann’s copies of Linnaea.
People: A. Braun, Prof. Temple,

Schmelz, Martin

Montrouge, France
2 Messages February 25, 1857 – March 21, 1857 (French - summaries)
Subjects: Plates being engraved by Schmelz for Engelmann.

Kreuznach and Berlin, Germany
5 Messages March 03, 1857 – February 19, 1858
Engelmann to Schmelz; (one to son George on back)
Subjects: Engraving of plates.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Fleischmann, Fritz, Mr. Rebuffet, M. Picart, Frau E. van Platz.

Schmidt, Moritz 1838-1907

Frankfort [on the Main]
1 Message August 20, 1880 (German - no translation)

Schneck, Jacob, M.D. 1843-1906

Mt. Carmel, IL
20 Messages June 23, 1877 – July 23, 1883
Subjects: Exchange of information on plant identification; cooperation with Engelmann especially on Pinus and Quercus. Loss of specimens in tornado.
Plants: Catalpa,* Quercus,* (Castanea), Lemna, Azalea, Gleditschia,* Vitis, Carya, Pinus,* Abies, Acer, Nymphaea,* Anacharis, cacti,* Cuscuta, Gonobulus,* Enslenia,* Sagittaria, Isoetes, mistletoe,* Phoradendron,* Crataegus.
People: Mr. Patterson, Mr. A. E. Hoote, Prof. Gray.

Schott, Arthur Carl Victor 1814-1875

Eagle Pass, TX; Washington DC; Ringold, Ft. Bliss, TX; Georgetown; Washington DC
54 Messages November 27, 1852 – December 07, 1870 and January 01, 1871 – April 18, 1875 (Some translated from German)
Subjects: Botany and geology of Boundary Commission; writing of report, Schott's drawings, cooperation with Bigelow; detailed description of plants and locations; problems between Whipple and Emory. Receiving Ph.D. from University of Tubingen and diploma of Academy Leopoldiana. Detailed discussions of economic uses of plants, origins of plants and origin of names in Indian culture. (6-12-66, 12-29-68, 5-11-70, 7-25-71) Employment as assistant gardener in local government garden of Schott. Controversy about Parry's dismissal; employment by Coast Survey. Sojourn in Yucatan.
Plants: Drawings throughout series; areola,* Mamillaria,* Cereus,* Echinocactus,* Opuntia,* Gramineae, (omission from Boundary Report) (decreasing value of report), Pilocereus,* Zakam, cochineal plant,* Algae and palms from Yucatan, Yucca,* Dasylirion,* Tiens, Agave* (entire letter 4/71), Tourcroya,* "Lechugilla",* Maguey, Pulque,* Yaxci,* Pitahoya, Carambuya, Sina, Sinita, Garambuyo, Dolile, palma, palmella.
People: Bigelow, Maj. Emory, Dr. John Torrey, Dr. Parry, Dr. King, Lt. Whipple, Fleischmann, President Buchanan (political situation), Mr. Egloffstein (gossip), Lt. Park, C. Roetter's drawings, Seibert, Dr. Newberry's paleontological collections, George von Jager, Michler's Report, Henry Engelmann, Smithsonian Institution, Prof. Baird, Prof. Gray, Grisebach, Mettenius, Salazar in Mexico, Dr. Kallusowsky, Clavigero's reports, Dr. B. Seeman, Gen. Michler, Thos. Meehan, Mr. J. Hilgard, Henry, Gray, Torrey, Blodgett, Gen. Babcock regarding Parry's dismissal, Judge Watts, Mr. Smithe (?), reasons for Dr. Palmer's dismissal, Eaton, Dr. Vasey, Clavigero.
Places: Santa Rosa, Rio Bravo, Laredo, Puerco River, Rio Bravo del Norte, San Pedro, Alleghenies, Mississippi River, Sierra Nevada, Urbana, Ohio; San Diego, Frontera, Gila, Cartejean, Truando, R. Altrato R., Mayan culture, Sonoyita, Jenegua, New Galicia; Mexican, Toltican, Aztecan and Heneguen cultures; Potomac Falls.

Schotte, C. H.

1 Message November 19, 1852 (German - no translation)

Schrenk, Joseph 1842-1890

College Point, NY 2 Messages March 4, 1878 – March 21, 1878
Subjects: Request for information and plant exchange; collections for Engelmann.
Plants: Quercus*.

Engelmann to Schrenk
St. Louis, MO
1 Message March 15, 1878
Subjects: Increasing number of plants coming from outside the country; Juncus.

Schultes, Julius Hermann 1820-1887

Munich [Germany]
1 Message December 12, 1857 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Exchange of Royal Herbarium specimens for Texas ones.
People: Drummond, Gray, Torrey, Tuckerman, Prof. Sendtner.

Schultz, (Bipont) Carl Heinrich 1805-1867

Diedesheim [Germany]
11 Messages June 16, 1840 – May 20, 1869 (German – some English translation)
Subjects: Request for Cichoriaceae specimens. Sent a diploma making Engelmann honorary member “by order of the Pollichia.” Request for Compositae specimens. Request for Caseatae.
Plants: Grammica (Cuscuta), Casenta, Cirsium.

Schultz, Friedrich Wilhelm 1804-1876

1 Message November 18, 1849 (German - English translation)
Subject: Reccomendation of Diehl’s character. Exchange of publications and specimens.
People: Mr. Diehl, Alexander Braun, Karl Schimper

Sclater, Philip Lutley 1829-1913

Pall Mall [London, England]
1 Message August 12, 18??
Subjects: Engelmann's visit and railroad passes from Kew.

Seeger, Moritz

3 Messages January 3, 1851 – December 12, 1856 (German - no translation)

Seeman, Barthold 1825-1871

London, [England]
2 Messages April 24, 1861 – February 15, 1865 (German - no translation)

Seitz, Franz

3 Messages August 1867 – May 26, 1868 (German - no translation)

Sencke, Ferdinand fl. 1830-1866

2 Messages February 1844 – July 12, 1854 (German - no translation)

Senoner, Adolph 1806-1895

Wien, Austria
1 Message November 8, 1880 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Shir's collection of woods; Mr. Diony, Vice director of the V. V. geological ...Institute interest in conifers.

Shaffer, David H. 1807?-1884

Naturalist, Cincinnati, OH
1 Message December 6, 1857
Subjects: Collector and artist, particularly colored illus.; plant exchange.

Shaw, Henry 1800-1889

St. Louis, MO
8 Messages October 18, 1856 – March 25, 1879
Shaw to Engelmann in European cities
Subjects: Progress of Garden, results of Engelmann's additions, requests for additional material; extensive discussions of plants for Garden, legal obligations; financial situation in St. Louis.
Plants: Acer,* Yucca,* Quercus,* development of various plants.
People: M. Vilmorin, M. Reuss, Mr. C. C. Parry, Mr. Riehl, Mr. Barth, Mr. Palm, Prof. Gray, Sir William Hooker,* Dr. Pope, Dr. Wislizenus, Haage & Schmidt, Prof. Alex, Braun, Supt. Tunica, Agassiz, and Mrs. Agassiz. Engelmann to Shaw (possibly George Engelmann, Jr.)
1 Ms. November 11, 1877
Engelmann to Shaw (possibly George Engelmann, Jr.)
Subjects: Plant notes; especially Fraxinus.

Short, Charles Wilkins 1794-1863

Louisville, Hayfield, KY
57 Messages April 30, 1841 – March 22, 1849 and January 07, 1850 – April 15, 1862
Subjects: Exchange of specimens; distribution of specimens; Engelmann was the intermediary for shipment of specimens between Short, Mead and Lapham; shipping routes and arrangements, accounts. Short's collections of the Botany of the Prairies of Illinois. Short's correspondence and exchanges with Dr. Steetz of Hamburg. Requests for Texas and Rocky Mt. plants, especially Lindheimer's. Biographical material on Gregg at his death.
Plants: German and Hungarian plants, Cuscuta, Verbena, "Pinyan" (subsistence of travelers) = to "pinon" of California, "frijoles" of Dana, Ipomoea, Rhamnus,* Equiseta and Euphorbia,* Heuchera,* Podostemum, Brachycote and Solidago (Gray's separation), Scutellaria* from Kentucky, Tradescantia (sic.), Pinus edulis (economic uses), Maguey (Agave?), Mesquite, "rock rose" named after Gregg, "Manitto" or Hand-flower tree (Cheirostemon), Quercus,* Potamogeton, Carex,* croton and capia grown from Mexican and Texan seeds, cacti seeds from Mr. Wright, Virgilia, Opuntia,* Delphinium,* Ephedra.
People: Mr. Buckles, Dr. Steetz, Mirbel, Meisner, Hooker, Nuttall, Push, Rev. Mr. Curtis of N. Carolina, Wm. Oakes of Ipwitch, Mr. I. A. Lapham of Milwaukee; Rafinesque, Riddell and Michaux, Equiseta and Euphorbias, Lindheimer, Mr. Meade, Mr. Wm. A. Richardson, Short's son-in-law, Geyer's plants, Chapman's catalogue, Dr. Henry, Capt. Fremont, Sullivant, Dr. Lehmann, Dr. Drake, Mr. Fendler's fine collections, Torrey and Gray's North American Flora, Mr. Lea, Mr. Clark, Dr. Bachman, Mr. S. B. Buckley's prospective trip to Salt Lake and Short's sponsorship of him, Dr. Darlington, Col. Ken and Bartram garden, Dr. Bayless, Reichenbach's European plants, Dr. Boott, Prof. Gray, William Short, Maj. Emory, Hayden's upper Missouri collections, Nuttall's death, Berlandier's miserable plants, Dr. Parry, Dr. James' politics, Wright's Cuban plants.
Places: Saluillo (Gregg), plants from Germany and Hungary, cliffs of Kentucky River, richest botanizing in Kentucky, Prairies of Ohio and Alleghenies (Delphinium), seeds to Missouri Botanical Garden.

Siebert, Selmar 1808-

Washington, [DC]
1 Message December 16, 1858
Subjects: Request for information regarding printing house report.

Siedhof, Charles F. W. 1809-

North Hoboken, NJ
1 Message September 12, 1877 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Request for information on Cereus. Thurger, Regel, Haage are acquaintances.

Siler, Andrew Lafayette 1824-1898

Osmer near Ranch P.O., Glendale, St. George, Fairview, Pahreah, Hillsdale, Salt Lake City, UT
37 Messages August 23, 1874 – May 23, 1883
Subjects: Collections for Engelmann as a friend of Parry's; desire to collect for his "German friends"; requests for Engelmann to name plants for him. Siler's peculiar affliction on the skin of his feet for which Engelmann gave his arsenic pills.
Plants: Pinus, cedar, Juniperus, Yucca, Abies, Shepardia, Piraphyllum, Agave, Cereus, Opuntia, Fraxinus, Ceraphyllum, Echinocactus,* Archeuthobium, Mamillaria.
People: Dr. C.C. Parry, Thomas Meehan, John Reading, Messrs. Haage & Schmidt, Mr. Jacob Hausblein?, Mr. C. H. Haskill with J. W. Powell's Geographical Partners, Mr. Sawyer.
Places: Escalante River; Toqueville, Utah Territory; Ranch P. O. near Charles Peak in Wasatch Mts.; Kanab Wash near Rio Colorado in Arizona; Buckskin Mts. and Columbia River, Kanag Gluch, Great Basin, Virgin and Clara River, Kanab Canon, Grand Canon.

Simpson, Capt. James Hervey 1813-1883

Washington, DC; St. Louis, MO; Ft. Hamilton, NY
10 Messages September 22, 1860 – November 3, 1875
Subjects: Publication of the report of the expedition on which Henry Engelmann did the botanical collections; praise for Henry's work and George Engelmann's descriptions; bankrupt condition of the treasury causing delay in the publication.

Skinner, Francis L. 1840-1905

Boston, [MS]
3 Messages January 30, 1881 – January 19, 1882
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's diary of the places visited together, especially Mt. Shasta; memoir of Dr. Jacob Bigelow.

Slogett, Dr. H. C. 1852-

Edmonton, London [England]
1 Message May 3, 1882
Subjects: Request for information about Missouri.

Smith, Charles Eastwick 1820-1900

Philadelphia, [PA]
16 Messages June 27, 1866 – September 21, 1882
Subjects: Exchange of information, especially Juncus and water plants; Philadelphia botanists.
Plants: Juncus,* Isoetes,* Sagittaria,* Sillaea,* Eriocaulon,* Scirpus,* Elatine,* Hemianthus,* Limosella,* Danthonia, Kalmia,* Sagina,* Carex, Gnaphephorum, Aspidium, Wolffia,* Lemna,* Lobelia,* Naias, Corema.
People: Mr. A. H. Smith, Prof. Porter, Dr. Gary, Leidy, Conrad, Canby, Durand, Bartram, Nuttall, Chapman, Commons, Torrey.
Places: Rausch Gap; Quaker brigade; Lazaretto; Burlington; Somer's Pt., N. J., Moosehead Lake,* Kennebeck River, Joni River, Ocean Co., N. J., Broad Mts., Camden, Cape May, Port Kennedy, Schuylkill River, Cedar Bridge, other locations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Rhode Island.

Smith, Erwin Frink 1854-1927

Hubbardston, Lansing, MI
6 Messages April 26, 1879 – November 26, 1882
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's advice in the Quercus collections and work on catalogue of Michigan plants for the State Pomological Society.
Plants: Quercus,* Opuntia,* Juncus, Pinus, Vitis.
People: Dr. Gary, Mr. Ch. H. Wheeler.
Places: Montcalm Co., Lake Superior* and Central Michigan.

Smith, John Donnell 1829-1928

Baltimore, MD
8 Messages February 16, 1880 – June 6, 1883
Subjects: Correction of his publication on Wolffia because of Hegelmaier and Ravenel's pronouncements. Dispute as to location of Vasey's collections of Rhododendron.
Plants: Wolffia,* Isoetes, Agave, Cactaceae, Rhododendron.
People: Dr. Sereno Watson, Hegelmaier, Ravenel, Mr. Leggett, Mr. Canby, Dr. Thomas T. Wood, Dr. Gray.
Places: Wilmington, N. C.; Heywood Co., Macan Co. and Jackson Co., N. C.; Balsam Mt., Highlands where Ga. and N. C. adjoin, Whiteside Mt., Hurricane Valley and Cashier's Mt. in the Alleghenies.

Smith, William Robertson 1828-1912

Supt. Botanic Garden, Washington, DC
1 Message November 3, 1876
Subjects: Request for copy of Engelmann's Agave publication.

Smithsonian Institution

Washington, DC
1 Message no date
Subjects: Offer for sale of a bird collection of birds of California.

Snyder, Dr. John Francis 1830-1921

Bolivar, Polk County, MO
1 Messages May 10, 1854
Subjects: Asking Engelmann's help in establishing a public museum in St. Louis for geologic, mineral, paleontologic, zoologic and botanic specimens of Upper Mississippi Valley.

Societe Nationale des Sciences, Naturelle de Cherbourg

2 items [August 26, 186?] (French - English translation)
Subjects: Request for Engelmann's portrait and biographical information.

Soulard, Benjamin Antoine 1817-1884

[St. Louis, MO]
1 Message
Subjects: Illness and discussion of medication prescribed by Engelmann.

Soulard, Mary 1842-1905

Hot Springs, AR; St. Louis, Arcadia, MO; Colorado City, TX
6 Messages January 12, 1879 – August 15, 1882
Subjects: Personal letters about Soulard and Engelmann family, illness.
Engelmann's promise to allow her to work in herbarium.
Plants: Cheilanthe,* Asplenium,* Ilex, Woodwardia, magnolia, junipers, grapes, wild cherries.
Places: Hot Springs, Arkansas; Geneva Lake, Wisconsin.

Stabler, Edward 1794-1883

Recording Secretary, Maryland Academy of Science, Baltimore, MD
1 Message January 29, 1880
Subjects: Request for information on hot wind called Chinook by his daughter, wife of an army officer in Helena, Montana.

Stansbury, Howard 1806-1863

Washington, DC
1 Message August 28, 1851
Subjects: Request for barometric observations from June 1849 to June 1850 to compare with his on expedition to Salt Lake.

Starck, Frederick Edward 1836-1906

Brownsville, TX
1 Message August 19, 1879
Subjects: Request for purchasing works by Torrey and Engelmann, especially Maj. Emory's Boundary Report.

Stelle, James Parish

Agriculture Editor of Mobile Register, Mobile, AL
3 Messages March 11, 1880 – April 20, 1880
Subjects: Detailed discussion of Catalpa* species and their geographical limits; information gathered from Dr. Charles Mohr and Messrs. Douglass & Sons of Waukegan, Illinois.

Stevens, Henry Hale 1818-1901

North Andover, MA
2 Messages July 11, 1878 – August 5, 1878 (1 letter partial German - no translation)
Subjects: Request for publications on Yucca, Agave, cactus and palms; discussion of Agave from St. Augustine.
People: Dr. Parry.

Stevens, Isaac Ingalls 1818-1862

Camp Pierce, Camp Cushing near Ft. Union at mouth of Yellowstone.
2 Messages June 6, 1853 – August 6, 1853
Subjects: Request for Engelmann to take meteorological observations to correspond with that of the main party of the Expedition for Survey and Exploration of the Railroad route to the Pacific.
People: Lt. Donelson, Jas. F. Moffitt, Lt. Grover's Puget Sound records, Lt. Mullan.
Places: Missouri River; Olympia, Washington Territory; Ft. Benton; Pike Lake; Bais de Sioux; Lake Travers; "Shyene" Valley Route.

Stinde, Conrad R. 1823?-1893

St. Louis, MO
1 Message November 14, 1863
Subjects: Request for prescription for his children.

Sturm, Johann Wilhelm 1808-1865

Frankfurt [on the Main], [Germany]
1 Message July 24, 1859
Subjects: Plant exchange; Sturm's article on Filices.
People: Dr. Haag Gutenburg, Prof. Braun.

Suksdorf, Wilhelm Nikolaus 1850-1932

White Salmon, Klickitat Co., Washington TerrItory.
3 Messages October 21, 1881 – December 6, 1883
Subjects: Detailed discussion of Pinus habitat and description.
People: Mr. Pringle, Mr. H. N. Patterson, Mr. Watson, Dr. Gray.
Places: Mt. Prado,* Falcon Valley*.

Sullivant, William Starling 1803-1873

Columbus, OH
11 Messages January 18, 1844 – April 23, 1850
Subjects: Sullivant's special study of Allegheny collections of mosses and jungermannias; request for Engelmann to distribute specimens; purchase of Lindheimer plants; Fendler as possible collector.
Plants: Cuscuta, Juncus, Chara, lichens, algae and fungi.
People: Bruch, Schemper, Fendler, Tuckerman, Baily, C. Montagne, Gray, Drummond in mountains near Santa Fe, Mr. Lea, Sprague, Lesquereaux in Southern Alleghenies.

Swallow, George Clinton 1817-1899

Leavenworth City, [KS]
1 Message October 15, 1865
Subjects: Sending sketch of grapes he had described as Berchemia volubilis.

Sweeney, Robert Ormsby 1831-1902

St. Paul, MN
1 Message November 22, 1878
Subjects: Acorn collections; Engelmann's information about "alkali water" as called by Winchell.

Swezey, Goodwin Deloss 1851-1934

Doane College, Department of Natural Science, Crete, NE
1 Message May 10, 1882
Subjects: Prof. Gray and Lapham and geographical limits of Pinus mitis.

Syme, George 1844-

Borrowash, Derbyshire, [England]
1 Message April 12, 1879 (copy of letter to Joseph Hooker)
Subjects: Detailed discussion of classifications of Abiea species, comparisons of Lowiana concolor of Southern Colorado and Sierras, grandis, Douglasii from Southern Colorado and Northern California. Engelmann's classification of Pinus ponderosa from Colorado, Oregon, and the Russian River in California, Benthamia, Jeffreyi compared with ponderosa; Pinus contorta raised from seed from Pacific coast compared with Dolanderi and Murrayanta, muricata and insignis, pugens of Wind River Mts. in Montana; Abies Engelmannia, memziesii on 49th parallel and Cascade Mts.
People: Lyall, Bongard.


Tatnall, Edward 1818-1898

Wawaset Nursery, Wilmington, DE
16 Messages September 30, 1858 – February 2, 1868
Subjects: Sending specimens to Engelmann at Gray's suggestion; request for naming of specimens. Very detailed discussion of Isoetes and Sagittaria; Tatnall discovered 100 of the 2426 species described in Gray's manual.
Plants: Isoetes,* Cuscuta,* Anacharis, Sagittaria,* Euphorbia, Paspalum, Dianthera, Echinodarus, Hemianthus, Rumex, Nuphar, Elatine, Sparganium, Nelumbium, Delaware grape, each in relation to habitat.

Thom, George 1819-1891

Washington, DC
3 Messages September 18, 1854 – March 12, 1855
Subjects: Printing and engraving of report; payments to Engelmann; Maj. Emory as commissioner delayed in El Paso because of Indians; difficulties.

Thomas, Friedrich August Wilhelm 1840-1918

Ohdruf at Gotha, and Thuringen; Mendrisio, Tessin
5 Messages April 20, 1880 – January 28, 1883 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Exchange of information and specmens especially galls on oaks, Celts, Cecidiam, Erineum, Ephedra, Euphorbia.
People: Prof. Braun, Mr. Monell, Dr. Focke, Bremi.

Thompson, Jacob, 1810-1885

Department of the Interior
1 May 13, 1859
Subjects: Request for return of specimens and drawings from the Emory Expedition, to the Smithsonian.

Thompson, William 1823-1903

Ipswich, England
1 Message September 25, 1856
Subjects: List of seed Desiderata; exchange of specimens.

Thuümen, Baron Felix von 1839-1892

Klosternewburg bei Wein [Austria]
3 Messages December 31, 1876 – April 27, 1879 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Need for seed specimens for Imperial and Royal Experiment Station; desire for exchange of mycological specimens. Information about correspondents in the U. S.; mutual friend, Prof. Ed. Fenzl; Prof Weiss; Czernach, mineralogist.

Thurber, George 1821-1890

Providence, RI; New York City; State Agriculture College, Lansing, MI; American Agriculture Office, New York, NY
44 Messages December 23, 1844 – May 17, 1882, folder 1 and folder 2
Subjects: Difficulties with publication of the report of the Mexican Boundary Survey; ownership of the specimens; dispute with Maj. Emory and Col. J. D. Graham, Thurber's dismissal from the Assay Office because of his refusal to be "taxed"; Mr. Sam'l F. Butterworth and Sickle's affair; Dr. Torrey and Henry's intercession for Thurber.
Thurber's lectures at the college of pharmacy in New York; work at the Cooper Institute; appointment to the State Agriculture College in Lansing; inefficiency at college; lifetime appointment as an editor to the American Agriculturist in New York. Work with grasses; Pomological conference in St. Louis; Botanical Club of New York.
Plants: Cactus "wood". Cereus giganteus,* Engelmann's Buffalo grass discovery. Chorincthes/Cloranthes/Cerypsis name discussion,* Sporobolus, Agrostis, Hipperis, Eleocharis, Washingtonium,* South American and Cuban grasses, Triticum, Vaseyii,* Epiphyllum, Isoetes, Arizona grasses, Lewisia, Opuntias, Buchloe, dioeciousness of grasses,* treatment of an arterial disease with ergot extract.
People: Dr. Mrad, David D. Kingsley, Dr. Gray, Col. J. D. Graham, Maj. Emory, Wright, Parry, Henry C. Pratt,* Silliman's Journal, Pino and Coco Maricopa Indians, Sir W. Hooker, Mr. Bartlett, Wislizenus, Dr. Ring, Mr Johnston, Col. Abert, Dr. Torrey, Mr. Campbell, Dr. Bigelow, Dr. Wright, Lt. Whipple, Prof. Henry, Col. Munro, Dr. Hayes, Baird, Smithsonian and catalogue, Chapman, Dr. Boole, Dr. Roenecke, Engelmann's brother's collections, Frank Pollard, Charles Lemaire, Buchanan,* Bolander, Hoopes, Dr. Coues, Dr. Hayden, Dr. Palmer, Swallow, Shaw's Garden, Meehan; Gray, Sargent, Thurber and Engelmann at Centennial, Bentham squelching of Thurberia, and work with genera.
Places: Gila on Rio Salidas, Orispe, Monterey, Bacheachi, Saltillo, Magdalena, Ures, Sonora, Guayamas, Santa Cruz, Pratt's paintings of the Sonora, Mule Spring, Rio Grande, Rincon Pass, St. Petersburg expedition to the Isthmus of Darien, Panama Railroad Company.

Thuret, Gustave 1817-1875

Antibes, [France]
1 Message March 3, 1873 (French - English translation)
Subject: Appreciation for seeds. Discussion of yucca pollination.
People: Dr. Bourat

Tischler, Otto 1843-1891

Konigsberg, [Germany]
1 Message February 23, 1875 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Request for American seed of authentic varieties of Yucca.

Tittman, Otto Hilgard 1850-1938

Santa Barbara, [CA]
2 Messages April 29, 1876 – June 22, 1876
Subjects: Change in political and writing report.
Plants: Phyllospadix* (?), kelp, oaks, Yucca, Malva tree.
People: Eugene Hilgard.
Places: Scorpion Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, "cusses" chaparral,* Tahiguas Ranch, San Miguel Island, Angel Island as collection locations.

Todaro, Agostino 1818-1892

Palermo, [Italy] (Italian and French)
4 Messages August 11, 1876 – November 1877
Subjects: The Botanical Garden at Palermo of which he is director; cultivation of Yucca, Agave, cacti and Aloe there.

Tommassini, Muzio Spiriti 1794-1879

Torrey, John 1796-1873

Cambridge, [MA]; Princeton, [NJ]; New York City; Columbia College Herbarium; Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC; Denver, CO
30 Messages August 2, 1844 – May 6, 1873
Subjects: Exchange of information on plants; Engelmann as intermediary in distribution of specimens from the west and southwest; Gray and Torrey's Flora of North America and Engelmann's contributions; Durand and Hilgard's poor report; lack of treasury paper for Newberry's Colorado expedition. Parry's "decapitation" by new commissioner of agriculture; National Academy of Science affairs; Prof. Bache's legacy.
Plants: Euphorbiaceae, Cuscuta* (compared to Humboldt's) Asclepiadaceous plants, Rumices, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbia,* Dasylirion of Zuccharini, Alismaceae, Najas and Caulinia, Corvania?, Geranium, Cactaceae, grapes, Torreya,* buffalo grass, Pinus, Gentians, Abies, Callitriche,* Juncus, Lemnaceae, Wolffia, Lemna,* Juncus,* cultivated Yuccas, Arceuthobium,* Phoradendron,* Coniferae, mistletoe on cottonwood, Yucca,* Darlingtonia, Erigeronae, Seslepa (?) dact..
People: Mr. Halsted, csch, Nuttall, Pickering, Humboldt, Dr. Wunderly, Fremont, Dr. Gray, Geyer, Lindheimer, Le Conte, Hooker, Dr. Wislizenus, Mr. Rich of the U. S. Exploring Expedition of Oregon and California, Riehl's worthless collections, Zuccharini, Maj. Emory, Doniphan, Col. Abert, Maj. Eaton and Dr. Edwards, Neew, Endlicher, Gregg, Miss Loring, Prof. Henry, Col. Benton, Mrs. Fremont, Lindley, Ackerman, Mr. Schott,* Pope and Beckeith's report, Durand and Hilgard, Williamson's Survey, Newberry, Mr. Thurber and State Agriculture College of Michigan, Steubel, Obione, Dr. George Buckley of Steven's Expedition, James Long's expedition, C. N. Kent - engineer, George Engelmann, Jr., Torrey's daughter Maggie, Austin, Riddell, Mrs. Brown of Battleboro, Vermont; Mr. William H. Leggett, Engelmann's brother Henry, Hayden, Prof. Porter, Mr. Watts, Prof. Bache, Palmer, LeRoy - curator, Miss M. C. Reynolds of St. Augustine.
Places: Monterey and Saltillo, Jefferson Barracks, Canadian River, Panama, Henry's Fork of the Green River, Gray's Peak.

Townsend, John Kirk 1809-1851

Recording Secretary, National Institute, Washington, DC
1 Message January 27, 1844
Subjects: Publicity for the National Institute in the Intelligence; Engelmann's role in the National Institute.

Tracy, Samuel Mills 1847-1920

Secretary of the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society, St. Louis, MO
1 Message May 17, 1880
Subjects: Engelmann's appointment as a judge on semi-tropical and California plants.

Trelease, William 1857-1945

Cambridge, MA
1 Message February 6, 1882
Subjects: Request for information on Lemna*.

Tuckerman, Edward 1817-1886

Amherst, [MA]
9 Messages June 7, 1864 – April 15, 1882
Subjects: Collection of Engelmann Desiderata in the White Mts.; use of his collection by Engelmann; discussion of plants and locations; plant naming; criticism of lichenologists.
Plants: Callitriche,* Sparganium, Subularia, Isoetes, Potamogeton, Juncus*.
People: Dr. J. W. Robbins, Pursh, Prof. Foies(?), Prof. Braun, Dr. Gray, Nuttall, Minke, E. Stahl, Dr. Bay, Shwendeall(?), Friest, Montagne, W. Jessup.
Places: Mountain pond in the White Mts., Echo Lake, Mystic River.

Tweedy, Frank 1854-1937

Northern Transcontinental Survey, New Port, RI
4 Messages December 14, 1882 – February 12, 1883
Subjects: Wish to collect for Engelmann; plant identification by Engelmann; work on the east slope of the Cascade Mts.; discussion of the relationship of altitude to plants.
Plants: Echinocactus,* conifers, Abies,* Pinus,* Larix, Tsuga, Thuja, Chamaecyparis, Taxus, Juniperus.
People: Mr. Meehan.
Places: Summit northeast of Ellensburg, Washington Territory; lake locations in mts.; Mt. Hood, Mt. Ranier, banks of Columbia River.


Uhlworm, Oskar 1849-1929

Leipzig, [Germany]
1 Messages December 24, 1879 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Commencing publication of "Botanical Weekly-Report"; wishes support.

Ullman, Ludwig

Springfield, MO
1 Message January 13, 1867
Subjects: Payment of medical bill.

Underwood, Lucien Marcus 1896-1907

Professor of Geology & Botany, Bloomington, IL; Wesleyan University, West Goshen, CT
3 Messages February 2, 1881 – August 10, 1882
Subjects: Request for identification and description of list of Isoetes and Marsileaceae from Connecticut.

Upham, Warren 1850-1934

Minneapolis, MN
5 Messages March 22, 1883 – January 1, 1884
Subjects: Request for determination and description of plants for his catalogue of plants of Minnesota.
Plants: Opuntia, Sagittaria,* Cyperus, Carex, Aristada*.
People: Mr. John Luberg, Mrs. C. H. Bennett, Prof. Coulter, Prof. Macoun, Dr. Vasey.
Places: Mankato, Pipestone City, Red Pipestone Quarry, Barabos, Wisconsin; Redwood Co. Minnesota.

Urban, Ignatz 1848-1931

Berlin, [Germany]
1 Message April 13, 1883 (Translated from German)
Subjects: Publication of "biographical memorandums."


Varrentrapp, Johann George 1809-1886 Frankfurt, [Germany]

3 Messages February 1869 – April 4, 1874 (1 printed document) (Translated from German)
Subjects: Public health and commencement of a magazine devoted entirely to this subject; request for U. S. publication on public health.

Vasey, George 1822-1893

Ringwood, McHenry Co., IL; Richview, IL; Washington, DC
54 Messages October 17, 1849 – October 7, 1875 and January 21, 1876 – December 4, 1883
Subjects: Desire to exchange rare Illinois plants for Texan, northwest of California plants; associated with the Chicago Academy of Science, "Prairie Farmer" and Illinois Natural History Society in connection with the State Normal University; wish for job of botanist of the Natural History Survey of Missouri. Collections for Rocky Mt. expedition; Maj. Powell's report of the botany. Deposit of wood specimens in the St. Louis Academy of Science. Changes in the Department of Agriculture; Vasey's work there. Forest tree collections and exhibit for the Centennial and Engelmann's collaborations on the conifers and oaks.
Plants: List of his plants for 1860; Corydalis, Ellisia,* Eleocharis or Scripius, Selaginella, Oplotheca, Cheilanthes,* Juncus,* and association with Scirpius,* Artemesia, Isoetes, Subalpina, Abies,* Cereus, Quercus,* Prinos,* Libocedrus,* Cupressus,* Pinus,* Juniperus,* hybrid of alba and prino oaks, Carex,* list of rare plants collected by Vasey's son in Arizona, grasses, vine of the Loranthaceae, Saxifraga,* Dodecathon, cacti specimens and cultivation, white and black balsam.
People: Mr. J. Carey, S. T. Olney, Prof. Dewey, Dr. Mead, Gray, Mr. E. Hall, Mr. D. C. Eaton, Mr. T. J. Hale, Dr. Morse, Mr. Ward, Mr. Buckley, Mr. Derry, Mr. WIlson, Mr. Lemmon, Prof. Brewer, Palmer, Hoopes, Gordon, Mr. Begg, Jenny A. Vasey, Mr. W. G. Stegman, Duke of Manchester (new pine named for), Robt. Ridgway, Prof. Pickering, Mr. Gilamn, Prof. J. W. Chickering, L. F. Ward, Wm. Sanders, Wm. Smith, Mr. Wolf, Dr. Parry and his planned trip with Engelmann, George R. Vasey, Mr. Howell, Mr. M. E. Jones, Dr. Warder, Dr. Hough, Dr. Palmer, Mr. Thomas, Prof. Baird, Dr. Newberry, Fremont's collections, Dr. Cooper, Dr. Swartz, Mr. A. H. Curtiss, Dr. Kellogg, Geo. R. Vasey, J. G. Lemmon, Dr. Lindheimer and Mr. J. Wolf, collectors for the Centennial, Mr. Watson, Mr. King, Wislizenus, Dr. Rothrock, Dr. Bigelow, Mr. Howell.
Places: Cairo and Chio River area, Fox River banks; Dexter, Illinois, Kearsarge Pass, Kings River, Sierras, Tugo Mts., Ingo Co., California; San Felipe and Dr. Newberry, Pinus flexilis, Mr. King, San Bernadino.

Veitch, Harry James [Sir] 1840-1924

Veler, Boi

1 Message January 31, 1857 (German with translation)
Subjects: Exchange of specimens, particularly "conicus," Sicillian and Greek plants.

Verschaffelt, Jean 1811-1884

Horticulteur - Gand, Belgium
1 Message March 2, 1879
Subjects: Exchange of Agave, Yucca and cacti.

Viaud-Grand-Marais, Ambroise 1833-1913

Prof. of Medical School, Nantes, France
1 Message July 14, 1883 (French - English translation)
Subjects: Exchange of Isoetes.
People: Tuckerman

Vilmorin-Andrieux and Co.

Vilmorin, Andrieux & Company – Paris, France
4 Messages March 21, 1877 – April 26, 1882
Subjects: Request for Euphorbia seeds; Vilmorin nut tree; visit to Shaw's greenhouses. Discussion of Helianthus,* oaks, Agave and American junipers.
People: Maurice Vilmorin, Mr. Cosson, Mr. Shaw, Henri (brother).