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Book Title
Inquiries concerning the intellectual powers and the investigation of truth
Publication Details
London, John Murray, 1838
Holding Institution
Cambridge University Library
Copyright & Usage
Darwin Estate and Cambridge University Library

Copyright Status:
In copyright

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Example: Charles Darwin, Carl Linnaeus
Example: Birds, Classification, Mammals
Contributed by Cambridge University Library
Annotation Not Available

line 3 score

line 2 score

lines 8—5 score
lines 8—5

bottom-margin apparently unintentional mark

lines 9—7 score
line 9 underline "organs"
line 9 underline "mind"
line 8 underline "external"
line 8 underline "brain"

lines 10—8 score

top-margin annotation It is clearly common to animals, the dogs ‹who› does not doubt, that the smellt01 of a partridge shows partridge there. xx |?
t01 - `not doubt ... smell' cancelled
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lines 3—6 score
lines 3—6 annotation X Is it with animals? Yes. V. p.8

bottom-margin annotation xx His master taking a gun, is to the dog a law of nature that he is going out shooting.— he learns this by his own experience.— he learns instinctively, that ‹if genrlly› |?
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top-margin annotation What is cause of difference. — if dogs sees take up hat, it is long before he knows this means to go out of doors.— Association & Causation united somehow.
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lines 7—11 score
lines 7—11 annotation This applies to animals

bottom-margin annotation As simple animals must also have causation the conviction of truth may be owing to ‹those› «simple» causes followed by uniform effects, only affecting such beings.

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6—3m score

lines 4—5 annotation 1

lines 8—13 score in pale pencil
lines 10—11 annotation in pale pencil 2

lines 8—11 annotation Hope love joy sorrow
lines 8—11 annotation sublime terrible pleasure of imagination

lines 11—1 score
lines 11—1 annotation do not understand

bottom-margin annotation Is fear active or passive emotion?
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lines 9—11 score
line 10 underline "wills"
line 10 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation How far can these be simplefied?

lines 2—5 score

lines 8—11 score
lines 6—11 annotation functions of the nervous system, as gravitation of matter.

lines 17—23 score
lines 19—20 score
lines 19—22 annotation X
     1/2 instincts

bottom-margin annotation & by these laws, such as of gravity, of crystalline arrangement of particles

lines 1—10 score
lines 1—10 score
line 1 annotation

bottom-margin annotation By Materialism, I mean, merely the intimate connection of kind of thought, with form of brain.— like, kind of attraction with nature of element

top-margin annotation Here organ produces life! — & life & thought intimately related

lines 3—19 score in pale pencil
lines 19—22 annotation ? will my theory apply here ?

line 3 annotation (z) Generation!
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line 2 underline "functions"

bottom-margin annotation Elective Affinity is a thing not analogous to others qualities of bodies, yet is supposed property of ‹bod› matter, so would I say thought was — from analog of organ.—

top-marginline 9 annotation X From thy myriads of animals that have existed We may assume thought as function of matter, & then say, to what function of matter, shall we compare the phenomena of attraction? — This assumption is as justifiable as the other we only know thought, as a phenomenon attendant on structure, & we only know elective attraction, as function of matter. /

line 18 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation X But why should not matter have such function, as plain facts indicate, as well as they have attraction

lines 1—3 score
lines 5—10 score
lines 5—10 annotation ! ⸮
top-margin annotation What a poor argument, liver continues to secrete bile, & testes same vivifying semen!

top-margin annotation cancelled Xa Then animals immortal.—

line 2 underline "thing mental"
lines 2—4 score
lines 2—4 annotation X a
top-margin annotation xa. As the elective affinity of a salt changes, when its elements unite in composition, so may mind.—

[continues overleaf] lines 21—1 double score
lines 17—1 score
lines 9—8 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation good

[continuation] 1—25 double score

bottom-margin annotation It is sufficient to point out close relation of kind of thought & structure of brain

lines 7—9 score
top-marginline 11 annotation But some of these impressions may be hereditary. — but they are habitual impressions & therefore ‹are› about which there is no consciousness, otherwise, mind could act, without having had perception. & why not? would not X simple mind feel lust?—

lines 7—2 score
lines 5—4 annotation emotions?

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lines 15—17 score in pale pencil
line 16 underline in pale pencil "perception ... reflection"

lines 17—21 score

lines 3—7 score in pale pencil
lines 3—7 annotation in pale pencil
top-margin annotation whether dog first time smells partridge knows there is something there.
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lines 12—1 score in pale pencil

bottom-margin annotation p. 59. On other hand by attention perception becomes more perfects ,& likewise willing does —

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lines 1—25 annotation Ought this not be expressed as willing «becomes» unconscious.— as perception becomes unconscious, —so do impressions, & hence ideas, & actions consqunt on these ideas. —

bottom-margin annotation a person whistles — & tricks are wholly unconscious actions.— [continues on page 57] great effort of attention / to perceive them. — [continues on page 56] these acts are only unconscious in the steps

top-margin annotation An action becomes habitual if repeated without at same time , without much attention at first as taking off cover to tea-chest.

lines 3—15 unmarked
from Page0054 annotation p. 59. On other hand by attention perception becomes more perfects ,& likewise willing does —

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top-margin apparently unintentional mark

lines 7—5 score in pale pencil
bottom-margin annotation in pale pencil Is Conscience effect of certain lines of action, useful on the large scale having been done on the less scale

line 3 underline "marvellous"
lines 4—8 score
line 5 underline "miraculous"

[continues overleaf] lines 3—1 score

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[continues overleaf] lines 15—1 score in pale pencil

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lines 11—12 annotation X
top-margin annotation X is not an indistinct idea seldom repeated, because unsatisfactory?

lines 1—16 score
line 8 annotation X
top-margin annotation like manner we learnt to repeat at school — I think by same association.

line 17 underline "attention"
line 17 annotation repetition?

lines 4—11 score
top-margin annotation Conception «of a view or» is a perfect instance of association of many impressions

line 28 underline "reverie"
line 28 annotation X
lines 16—1 annotation / X As far as the mind is concerned nearly like sleep. the relations of ideas just past not quite so broken — body different state /

line 28 underline "reverie"
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ argument for mind working always during sleep

bottom-margin annotation habit must be associated will.—

line 11 underline "of emotion"
lines 12—6 annotation Does thinking of vexing thing, bring other disagreeable thoughts?

lines 12—1 score

lines 6—2 score
lines 5—4 annotation X
bottom-margin annotation Scarcely ever a new thought arises from this process — only old associations

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lines 7—1 score
lines 6—5 annotation X
top-margin annotation X I know from experience ‹un› memory of mny unconnected facts is far most easy to me by such local association.

lines 11—14 score
line 14 underline "are ... acquainted"
lines 12—16 annotation ⸮    what difference?

top-margin annotation A dog. when he has had good hunt after any animal in a spot in a hedge recollects it, & always go there with pleasure & eagerness }
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bottom-margin annotation Horse sweating , when he hears hunting horn in stable. Euphrates if he guessed he was going to race «by little water being given him» mad with eagerness all night.
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top-margin annotation Horses wonderful local memory
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top-margin annotation (z) These cases like Miss Cogans, & serve to show that affections of brain will recall facts in ‹their› an individual life after long periods.—
bottom-margin annotation (z) These may be adduced ,as nearly as wonderful a priori as instincts — an habitual action being repeated would be more to my purpose.—
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lines 9—13 double score
line 11 annotation X

lines 4—1 score
bottom-margin annotation Exactly like my Father's case of Archdeacon Corbet.

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lines 8—3 score in pale pencil
lines 7—6 annotation in pale pencil

bottom-margin annotation Animals minds are influenced by age, like that of man

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line 14 underline "Dr. Beattie"
bottom-margin annotation X What has he written?

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lines 10—13 [    ]
lines 10—13 annotation (1)(a)
bottom-margin annotation (a) Does not a bird when it builds its nest, use abstraction respecting place, & softness & elasticity of materials, which are not constant in kind, but only in quality.—
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lines 14—16 annotation (2)

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line 11 annotation (a)

bottom-margin annotation animals have ideas of colour.— mad horse (⸮Cline) dread of scarlet, of any kind.— — Smells. do —
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top-margin annotation Peacock has idea of beauty?—
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lines 3—8 score
lines 3—8 [    ]

bottom-margin annotation Animals sometimes suffer from abstraction. Thus the Casara which bores through walls, has an abstract idea of vertical surface of hard earth as the requisite , & does not combine ,such conditions as imply a cliff of earth
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line 7bottom-margin annotation When cat pounces & runs after feather, it knows it is not mouse, but does it not use imagination or picture to itself it is. — X ⧟ quote Madam Necker. on playing of children—

lines 10—8 score
bottom-margin annotation | What are the feelings of a dog, when he bays the moon?
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top-margin annotation When two Male birds are rivalling each other in singing — is it not a work of imagination?
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top-margin annotation Is not imagination, abstraction of «several different» parts of several ideas & their unions , instead of as in pure abstraction of «same» qualities (as colour &c) in [corrected from `of'] several ideas?

lines 23—24 score
lines 23—24 annotation ?

lines 3—2 score
lines 3—2 annotation ?
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lines 1—6 score in pale pencil
lines 1—6 annotation in pale pencil common to animals

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lines 4—18 annotation very Poor

[continues overleaf] lines 3—1 score

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top-margin annotation If because such combination is observed in an animal, it is called instincts.— there is an end of argument.

lines 9—17 score
lines 8—14 annotation — Yet imaginatn must be always checked by reason— otherwise dreaming.

line 9 underline "Reasoning"
line 8 underline "reason"
lines 4—3 underline "Discursive Faculty"

bottom-margin annotation I suspect the Paper in Zoological Journal will be worth study .
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lines 3—7 score

lines 1—3 unmarked
top-margin annotation Perhaps mathematical reasoning does not.— each step there does not require the memory & knowledge of all contingencies,— it is merely to find the step, & then to pursue the deep train.—

lines 4—6 score
lines 4—6 annotation requires properly arrangd memory XX

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line 17 annotation in pale pencil All Poor

lines 17—23 annotation But yet must be thought over with regard to Transmutation of species theory

lines 13—19 score
line 14 annotation X
top-margin annotation Would not simple association of ideas lead to this expectation, which would be believed in till contradicted (which it is not) by experience.—

lines 8—7 score
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ Surely all this may be resolved into simple fact we trust our memory, until taught th contrary —

lines 4—12 score
top-margin annotation A man may wish to jump from a bridge to save another, but absolutely will not let him.— Makes the muscles fall, & heart sink —

midpage annotation (See following Pages & Copy all this)
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bottom-margin annotation vertically crossed [continued from page 203] P) For wickedness is no more ‹th› a man's fault than bodily disease!! (animals do persecute the sick as if were their fault). If this doctrine were. H
whole-margin annotation H believed — pretty world we should be in!— But it could not be believed excepting by intellectual people — if I believed it — it would make no one difference in my life. for I feel more virtue more happiness — Believers, would «will» only mary good woment01 & pay detail attention to education, & so put their children in way of being happy.
t01 - `would «will» ... women' horizontally crossed

top-margin annotation vertically crossed / It is yet right to punish criminals for public good.

top-margin annotation vertically crossed / All this delusion of free will, would necessarily follow from mere feeling power of action.—

top-margin annotation vertically crossed / View no more unreasonable, than that there should be sick & therefore unhappy. men / What humility this view teaches
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whole-margin annotation vertically crossed A man ‹reading› «hearing» bible by chance becomes good. this «is» effect of accident with this state of desire (neither by themselves sufficient) effect of birth & other accidents: may be [continues on page 203] congratulated, but deserves no credit /

line 7 underline "consideration"
top-marginline 2 annotation Yes but what determines his consideration?— his own previous conduct — & what has determined that? & so on — Hereditary character & education — & chance (indepdt of his will) circumstances. /
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lines 3—8 annotation vertically crossed / Changes of character possible from change of organization
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lines 4—27 annotation vertically crossed | When opposed desires are absolutely equal which is possibility. may free-will then decide.— but it must be decided by habit or wish & these all originate as before |
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line 11 underline "desires"
line 11 underline "conduct"
line 11 annotation What has given these desires or conduct
line 13 at "agent" annotation but not desirer
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lines 15—27 annotation vertically crossed | Then why does not act of insanity give shame?? |
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bottom-margin annotation vertically crossed According to all this ones disgust at villain ‹originat› is nothing more than disgust at some one under foul disease, & pity accompanies both. Pity ought to banish disgust.— P[continues on page 202]

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line 4 annotation

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lines 15—17 annotation “    ”

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bottom-margin annotation vertically crossed A man may put himself in the way of above accidents. but desire to do so arises as before; & knowledge that the effect will be good, arises as before. education & mental disposition.— /

bottom-margin annotation vertically crossed One feels how many actions, not determined by will, [?]passion [continues on page 207] — When th motive power feeble & complicated & opposed we say free will (or chance

lines 3—7 annotation How many of them do animals possess? /
lines 1—5 score
lines 1—5 annotation “    ”
top-margin annotation ⧟ { I presume these first truths are something quite distinct from instinctive knowledge. or passion — as fear of death.— sexual desire — pleasure of affection or charity —

line 9 annotation The following pages — very poor

lines 8—17 crossing-out
line 12 underline "required"
lines 11—14 annotation so much the better! Fee-hunting doctor

bottom-margin annotation In short that your hypothesis shall be real cause with respect one item at least in group of facts — if it be [continues on page 219] only possible cause. hypothesis of very poor kind. V. M. le Comte

lines 18—20 annotation to 256. wretchedly poor — as far as originality goes

lines 3—6 score

top-margin annotation Main difficulty of judging probilities multiplied into probabilities. & the alternatives omitted,— present always ,except in mathematical reasoning /

lines 1—20 score
lines 1—20 annotation again the chance of several independent proofs from probability tending to one end, if not true

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lines 10—12 annotation yes

line 1 score
line 1 annotation X
top-margin annotation X | In insanity, there is belief, though opposed by many of the senses — in dreaming, merely passive belief from absence of evidence of senses

lines 4—1 annotation drunkeness more ‹tha› closely allied than dreaming

lines 7—8 score
line 7u "is ... dismissed"
top-margin annotation .no, a vivid thought «neither pleasant nor painful but merely vivid» cannot be dismissed even by strongest will ,— is insanity an unhealthy vividness of thought.

line 8u "dreaming ... insanity"
lines 9—19 annotation } they ought not to be classed together, ‹one› the reality of the thought or absence of doubt in one case being owing to the ‹weakness› «absence» of contending impressions, & in insanity opposed to many present impressions.

line 17 score
bottom-margin annotation ⧟ In Spectral Illusions, what is history of kind of [?]impssn

lines 2—8 score
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lines 2—3 annotation a
top-margin annotation a) There is some sophistry here: insane man has perfect consciousness — somnabulism has not.—

lines 9—6 annotation 5th Drunkeness Nitrous oxide

lines 3—2 score
bottom-margin annotation It would be worth while to write down every dream

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line 11 annotation X
top-margin annotation & double consciousness & likewise many which from repetition have ceased to be objects of conscious memory — namely all habitual movements

lines 15—17 score
lines 15—17 annotation ?
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line 19 underline "dream"
line 19 annotation ? dream —

bottom-margin annotation Mem: my father's cases of quick oblivion —
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lines 1—5 score
top-margin annotation like the memory after apolexy in some cases — "Clubs are trumps" ‹major› V. ante

lines 1—4 score
line 2 underline "pleasure"
lines 1—2 annotation ?
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lines 8—19 unmarked
lines 8—19 annotation No account is here taken of the consciousness of people, that they are insane

line 5 crossing-out
line 5 at "is" annotation can
line 5 at "not" annotation be
line 5 at "corrected" annotation in the one case, dreaming,
line 6 at "world" annotation ,& in the other case, is so vivid, that external world is almost wholly neglected. /

line 10 at "state" annotation partially
line 10 at "will" annotation ; insane people do to certain extent vary, & forget the insane ‹train› ideas. /

line 15 underline "higher states"
line 15 underline "mania"
line 15 annotation vertically crossed My father considers the two as wholly different.

[continues overleaf] 3 crossing-out
line 3 at "some" annotation any
line 3 crossing-out
line 3 at "has" annotation is
line 2 at "of" annotation by
line 2 at "mind" annotation / the thinking machinery acting with unequal & praeternatural force /
line 2 at "and" annotation accordingly

[continuation] 2 at "which" annotation / though often rightly perceived ,as in D Ashe & in case of man eating porridge /
line 2 crossing-out
line 2 at "are calculated" annotation do not
line 2 crossing-out "to"

lines 2—4 double score
top-margin annotation Surely as in passion from fatigue ,(or fear from sickness) from long habit some object must be fixed on & it scarcely signifies what it is.

lines 4—1 score
bottom-margin annotation just as passion of the above kind is generally most unreasonable

lines 4—7 score
line 7 underline "occasional cause"
top-margin annotation low spirits is to melancholia : : passion to mania — frame of mind in the state & any idea fixed on.—

lines 12—13 crossing-out "constitutional ... character"
line 13 at "upon" annotation diseased state of brain.

lines 8—11 score
top-margin annotation if an idea was called up, with this degree of vividness, like a concepcion — no one would doubt it was a concepcion

lines 8—11 score
lines 8—11 annotation how completely ungoverned

line 1 at "Part IV" annotation (— All trash)

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lines 2—12 score